Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Use the periodic table to identify the elements in the following list with unfilled 4d orbitals: rhodium, rhenium, ruthenium, rutherfordium, radium.

Interpretation Introduction


The elements having unfilled 4d orbitals has to be identified.

Concept introduction:

The aulfbau principle: The aulfbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels.

Maximum ten electrons must be there in the d orbitals.


Electronic configuration of rhodium is 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d85s1 therefore unfilled 4d orbitals. Rhodium has eight electrons in the 4d orbital.

Electronic configuration of ruthenium is 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d75s1 therefore unfilled 4d orbitals. Ruthenium has six electrons in the 4d orbital.

Rests of the elements are rhenium, rhutherfordium and radium has completely filled 4d orbitals which are given below.

Electronic configuration of rhenium is 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p64f145d56s2 therefore filled 4d orbitals

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