Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Which of the following complex ions is (are) square-planar?

(a) [Ti(CN)4]2−

(b) [Ni(CN)4]2−

(c) [Zn(CN)4]2−

(d) [Pt(CN)4]2−

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: From the given set of complexes the options with square planar geometry has to be determined.

Concept introduction: The transition metal atoms have tendency to form complex compounds that are linked to the certain neutral or ionic species which leads to the formation of coordination compounds.

Coordination compounds: The compounds having coordination covalent bonds which form when metal ions react with polar molecules or anions.

Ligands: The ions or molecules that forms coordination covalent bond with metal ions in a coordination compound. Ligands should have minimum one lone pair of electron, where it donates two electrons to the metal. Metal atom accepts the electron pair from a ligand forming a coordination bond.

Monodentate Ligand is ligand which donates only one pair of electrons to form bond with metal. It only makes one bond with metal. Polydentate ligand forms two or more coordination bond with metal ions to form a complex.

Spectrochemical Series: The list of ligands arranged in an ascending order of (Δ)(the splitting of d-orbitals in presence of various ligands).

I-<Br-<SCN-<Cl-<S2-<F-<OH-<O2-<H2O<NCS-<edta4-<NH3<  en<NO2-<CN-<COweak-fieldincreasing(Δ)strong-fieldligandsligands

The strong-field ligands results in pairing of electrons present in the complex and leads to diamagnetic species , while the low-field ligand do not have tendency to pair up the electrons therefore forms paramagnetic species.


Correct option:

(b) [Ni(CN)4]2 and (d) [Pt(CN)4]2 are square planar complexes.

Reasons for correct option:

The oxidation number for metals in (b) and (d) are as follows,

[Ni(CN)4]2-Let x be oxidation number of Nix+(4×1)=2x4=+2x=2[Pt(CN)4]2-Let x be oxidation number of Pt

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