   Chapter 22, Problem 82GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

The transition metals form a class of compounds called metal carbonyls, an example of which is the tetrahedral complex Ni(CO)4. Given the following thermodynamic data (at 298 K): (a) Calculate the equilibrium constant for the formation of Ni(CO)4(g) from nickel metal and CO gas.(b) Is the reaction of Ni(s) and CO(g) product- or reactant-favored at equilibrium?(c) Is the reaction more or less product-favored at higher temperatures? How could this reaction be used in the purification of nickel metal?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The given question to be answered.

Concept introduction:

Equilibrium constant:   A number that expresses the relationship between the amounts of products and reactants present at equilibrium in a reversible chemical reaction at given temperature.

Gibb’s equation: A thermodynamic equation used for calculating changes in Gibbs energy of a system as a function of temperature.

ΔrGo=ΔrHoTΔrSowhere,ΔrGogibbsfreeenergyTtemperatureΔSEntropychangeΔHEnthalpychange

Explanation

From the given thermodynamic data, the enthalpy of given reaction is calculated below,

ΔrHo=nHfo(products)nHfo(reactants)[602.9kJ/mol][(-110.525kJ/mol)+(0)]=602.9+442.1=160.8kJ/mol

From the given thermodynamic data, the entropy of given reaction is calculated below,

ΔrSo=nSfo(products)nSfo(reactants)[+410.6J/K.mol][(4×197.674 J/K.mol)+(29.87J/K.mol)]=+410.6820

b.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The given question to be answered.

Concept introduction:

Equilibrium constant:  A number that expresses the relationship between the amounts of products and reactants present at equilibrium in a reversible chemical reaction at given temperature.

Gibb’s equation: A thermodynamic equation used for calculating changes in Gibbs energy of a system as a function of temperature.

ΔrGo=ΔrHoTΔrSowhere,ΔrGogibbsfreeenergyTtemperatureΔSEntropychangeΔHEnthalpychange

c.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The given question to be answered.

Concept introduction:

Equilibrium constant:   A number that expresses the relationship between the amounts of products and reactants present at equilibrium in a reversible chemical reaction at given temperature.

Gibb’s equation: A thermodynamic equation used for calculating changes in Gibbs energy of a system as a function of temperature.

ΔrGo=ΔrHoTΔrSowhere,ΔrGogibbsfreeenergyTtemperatureΔSEntropychangeΔHEnthalpychange

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