Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Use the periodic table to identify the elements the following list with unfilled 3d orbitals: cadmium, cerium, cobalt, chromium, copper.

Interpretation Introduction


The elements with unfilled 3d orbitals from the given list have to be identified.

Concept introduction:

The electron configuration tells us in which orbitals the electrons for an element are located. Three rules are,

  • Electrons fill orbitals staring with lowest n and moving upwards(Aufbau principle)
  • No two electrons can fill one orbital with the same spin(Pauli Exclusion Principle)
  • For orbitals within the same subshell, the electrons fill each orbital singly before any orbital gets a second electron (Hund’s rule).

Maximum ten electrons must be there in the d orbitals.


Electronic configuration of cobalt is 1s22s22p63s23p63d74s2 therefore unfilled 3d orbitals. Cobalt has seven electrons in the 3d orbital.

Electronic configuration of chromium is 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1 therefore unfilled 3d orbitals. Chromium has five electrons in the 3d orbital.

Rests of the elements are cadmium, cerium and copper has completely filled 3d orbitals which are given below.

Electronic configuration of cadmium is 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s2 therefore filled 3d orbitals

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