   Chapter 22, Problem 53GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Describe an experiment that would determine whether nickel in K2[NiCl4] is square-planar or tetrahedral.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: An experiment that determines whether nickel in K2[NiCl4] is square planar or tetrahedral has to be determined.

Concept introduction: The transition metal atoms have tendency to form complex compounds that are linked to the certain neutral or ionic species which leads to the formation of coordination compounds. There exists a large number of coordination compounds that have a large number of applications in the chemical industry as well as in daily life.

The properties of the coordination compounds depend upon the primary and secondary valancy of the metal ion in the coordination sphere. The electrical conductivity depends upon the number of ions that are produced by complex.

The strong-field ligands results in pairing of electrons present in the complex and leads to diamagnetic species , while the low-field ligand do not have tendency to pair up the electrons therefore forms paramagnetic species.

The strong field ligands lead to splitting to a higher extent than the weak field ligands and the wavelength of light absorbed depends on the energy gap that is produced by a particular ligand.

The five d orbitals get divided into two sets that is dxy, dyz and dxz orbitals forms one set and dx2-y2and dz2 forms another set. The first set are oriented between the x, y and z axes whereas the second set gets oriented along the axis.

Electronic configuration: It is defined as the distribution of electrons present in the atom over orbitals following certain rules like electrons starts filling the lower energy orbital to higher energy, pairing of electrons does not occur until all the orbitals are singly filled and finally no electrons present in orbital can have same set of quantum numbers.

Explanation

The given complex shows that Ni serves as the central metal atom since it is surrounded by 4 ligands with it. The periodic table clearly shows that the outer electronic configuration of Ni is 4s23d8.

The oxidation state for Ni in given complex is +2 since given complex has 4Cl and 2K where the charge of Cl is 1 and charge of K=1 which is showed as follows,

K2[NiCl</

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