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Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079
Textbook Problem

Indicate whether or not each of the following types of hydrocarbon derivatives must contain a oxygen–hydrogen single bond.

  1. a. aldehyde
  2. b. ketone
  3. c. ester
  4. d. carboxylic acid

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Aldehyde must contain an oxygen‑hydrogen single bond or not has to be indicated.

Concept Introduction:

Carbonyl groups are the one which contain a double bond between carbon and oxygen atom.  Aldehydes and ketones possess this carbonyl functional group in it.  The structural representation of a carbonyl group can be given as shown below,

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 4, Problem 4.10EP , additional homework tip  1

The groups that is attached to the carbonyl carbon atom can be either hydrogen or carbon atom.  If the attached atoms are hydrogen and a carbon atom means then the compound is an aldehyde and if they are two carbon atoms means then the compound is a ketone.  If the attached atom is a nitrogen atom to the carbonyl carbon atom means it is a amide.  If a hydroxyl group is attached to a carbonyl carbon atom, then it is a carboxylic acid.  If one of the bonds in the carbonyl carbon atom is attached to an oxygen atom that is bonded with alkyl, cycloalkyl or aromatic system is known as ester.

Explanation

Carbonyl group contains a carbon atom and an oxygen atom.  The bond between carbon and oxygen in a carbonyl group is a double bond.

Aldehydes are the compounds in which the one of the two additional bonds that the carbon atom in the carbonyl group forms has to be with hydrogen atom...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Ketone must contain an oxygen‑hydrogen single bond or not has to be indicated.

Concept Introduction:

Carbonyl groups are the one which contain a double bond between carbon and oxygen atom.  Aldehydes and ketones possess this carbonyl functional group in it.  The structural representation of a carbonyl group can be given as shown below,

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 4, Problem 4.10EP , additional homework tip  2

The groups that is attached to the carbonyl carbon atom can be either hydrogen or carbon atom.  If the attached atoms are hydrogen and a carbon atom means then the compound is an aldehyde and if they are two carbon atoms means then the compound is a ketone.  If the attached atom is a nitrogen atom to the carbonyl carbon atom means it is a amide.  If a hydroxyl group is attached to a carbonyl carbon atom, then it is a carboxylic acid.  If one of the bond in the carbonyl carbon atom is attached to an oxygen atom that is bonded with alkyl, cycloalkyl or aromatic system is known as ester.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Ester must contain an oxygen‑hydrogen single bond or not has to be indicated.

Concept Introduction:

Carbonyl groups are the one which contain a double bond between carbon and oxygen atom.  Aldehydes and ketones possess this carbonyl functional group in it.  The structural representation of a carbonyl group can be given as shown below,

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 4, Problem 4.10EP , additional homework tip  3

The groups that is attached to the carbonyl carbon atom can be either hydrogen or carbon atom.  If the attached atoms are hydrogen and a carbon atom means then the compound is an aldehyde and if they are two carbon atoms means then the compound is a ketone.  If the attached atom is a nitrogen atom to the carbonyl carbon atom means it is a amide.  If a hydroxyl group is attached to a carbonyl carbon atom, then it is a carboxylic acid.  If one of the bond in the carbonyl carbon atom is attached to an oxygen atom that is bonded with alkyl, cycloalkyl or aromatic system is known as ester.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Carboxylic acid must contain an oxygen‑hydrogen single bond or not has to be indicated.

Concept Introduction:

Carbonyl groups are the one which contain a double bond between carbon and oxygen atom.  Aldehydes and ketones possess this carbonyl functional group in it.  The structural representation of a carbonyl group can be given as shown below,

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 4, Problem 4.10EP , additional homework tip  4

The groups that is attached to the carbonyl carbon atom can be either hydrogen or carbon atom.  If the attached atoms are hydrogen and a carbon atom means then the compound is an aldehyde and if they are two carbon atoms means then the compound is a ketone.  If the attached atom is a nitrogen atom to the carbonyl carbon atom means it is a amide.  If a hydroxyl group is attached to a carbonyl carbon atom, then it is a carboxylic acid.  If one of the bonds in the carbonyl carbon atom is attached to an oxygen atom that is bonded with alkyl, cycloalkyl or aromatic system is known as ester.

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