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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 7.4, Problem 2RC
Textbook Problem
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Which of the following ions has the largest number of unpaired electrons?

  1. (a) Cr3+
  2. (b) Cu2+
  3. (c) Co3+
  4. (d) Ni2+

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Given the four different transitions ions are given in the statement and which ions have largest unpaired electrons it is respective shells, this configuration need to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons (e-) of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Explanation of Solution

Reasons for correct answers:

  1. 1. Electronic configuration of ( Co3+ ) system.

The cobalt atomic number (Z=27), The first (18) electrons are occupying in (1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p) orbitals and reaming 9 electros filling in (3d and 4s) orbital shells.

Atomicnumberofcobalt(Co)=29spdfwith orbtital notation=Co[1s22s22p63s23p63d74s2]Orbital filling method       1s22s22p63s23p63d74s2

The ( Co ) was oxidized to ( Co3+ ) ions, it lost two electrons in outermost (3d and 4s) orbitals, hence this orbital notation method shows below.

Orbital filling method (Co3+) ions = 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1

This system having largest unpaired electrons in (3d) shells

The cobalt ( Co3+ ) system having a largest unpaired electrons when compare to other ions. So option (c) is correct answer.

Reasons for incorrect options:

  1. 2. Let us consider a chromium (Cr3+) ions electronic configuration

AtomicnumberofChromium (Cr)=24spdfwith orbtital notation=Cr[1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1Orbital filling method       1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1

When ( Cr ) was oxidized to ( Cr3+ ) ions, it lost three electrons in outermost (3d and 4s) orbitals, hence this orbital notation method shows below.

Orbital filling method  (Cr+) ions = 1s22s22p63s23p63d44s0

So these (Cr3+) ions have three unpaired electrons in (3d) shells.

  1. 3. Next we consider a Electronic configuration of (Cu2+) ion

The cupper atomic number (Z=29), the first (18) electrons are occupying in (1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p) orbitals and reaming 11 electros filling in (3d and 4s) orbital shells

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Chapter 7 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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