BIOLOGY - 12th Edition - by Raven - ISBN 9781260169614
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BIOLOGY
12th Edition
Raven
Publisher: RENT MCG
ISBN: 9781260169614

Solutions for BIOLOGY

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Chapter 2.5 - Properties Of WaterChapter 2.6 - Acids And BasesChapter 3 - The Chemical Building Blocks Of LifeChapter 3.1 - Carbon: The Framework Of Biological MoleculesChapter 3.2 - Carbohydrates: Energy Storage And Structural MoleculesChapter 3.3 - Nucleic Acids: Information MoleculesChapter 3.4 - Proteins: Molecules With Diverse Structures And FunctionsChapter 3.5 - Lipids: Hydrophobic MoleculesChapter 4 - Cell StructureChapter 4.1 - Cell TheoryChapter 4.2 - Prokaryotic CellsChapter 4.3 - Eukaryotic CellsChapter 4.4 - The Endomembrane SystemChapter 4.5 - Mitochondria And Chloroplasts: Cellular GeneratorsChapter 4.6 - The CytoskeletonChapter 4.7 - Extracellular Structures And Cell MovementChapter 4.8 - Cell-to-cell InteractionsChapter 5 - MembranesChapter 5.1 - The Structure Of MembranesChapter 5.2 - Phospholipids: The Membrane’s FoundationChapter 5.3 - Proteins: Multifunctional ComponentsChapter 5.4 - Passive Transport Across MembranesChapter 5.5 - Active Transport Across MembranesChapter 5.6 - Bulk Transport By Endocytosis And ExocytosisChapter 6 - Energy And MetabolismChapter 6.1 - The Flow Of Energy In Living SystemsChapter 6.2 - The Laws Of Thermodynamics And Free EnergyChapter 6.3 - Atp: The Energy Currency Of CellsChapter 6.4 - Enzymes: Biological CatalystsChapter 6.5 - Metabolism: The Chemical Description Of Cell FunctionChapter 7 - How Cells Harvest EnergyChapter 7.1 - Overview Of RespirationChapter 7.2 - Glycolysis: Splitting GlucoseChapter 7.3 - The Oxidation Of Pyruvate Produces Acetyl-coaChapter 7.4 - The Citric Acid CycleChapter 7.5 - The Electron Transport Chain And ChemiosmosisChapter 7.6 - Energy Yield Of Aerobic RespirationChapter 7.7 - Regulation Of Aerobic RespirationChapter 7.8 - Oxidation Without O2Chapter 7.9 - Catabolism Of Proteins And FatsChapter 7.10 - Evolution Of MetabolismChapter 8 - PhotosynthesisChapter 8.1 - Overview Of PhotosynthesisChapter 8.2 - The Discovery Of Photosynthetic ProcessesChapter 8.3 - PigmentsChapter 8.4 - Photosystem OrganizationChapter 8.5 - The Light-dependent ReactionsChapter 8.6 - Carbon Fixation: The Calvin CycleChapter 8.7 - PhotorespirationChapter 9 - Cell CommunicationChapter 9.1 - Overview Of Cell CommunicationChapter 9.2 - Receptor TypesChapter 9.3 - Intracellular ReceptorsChapter 9.4 - Signal Transduction Through Receptor KinasesChapter 9.5 - Signal Transduction Through G Protein–coupled ReceptorsChapter 10 - How Cells DivideChapter 10.1 - Bacterial Cell DivisionChapter 10.2 - Eukaryotic ChromosomesChapter 10.3 - Overview Of The Eukaryotic Cell CycleChapter 10.4 - Interphase: Preparation For MitosisChapter 10.5 - M Phase: Chromosome Segregation And The Division Of Cytoplasmic ContentsChapter 10.6 - Control Of The Cell CycleChapter 10.7 - Genetics Of CancerChapter 11 - Sexual Reproduction And MeiosisChapter 11.1 - Sexual Reproduction Requires MeiosisChapter 11.2 - Features Of MeiosisChapter 11.3 - The Process Of MeiosisChapter 11.4 - Summing Up: Meiosis Versus MitosisChapter 12 - Patterns Of InheritanceChapter 12.1 - The Mystery Of HeredityChapter 12.2 - Monohybrid Crosses: The Principle Of SegregationChapter 12.3 - Dihybrid Crosses: The Principle Of Independent AssortmentChapter 12.4 - Probability: Predicting The Results Of CrossesChapter 12.5 - The Testcross: Revealing Unknown GenotypesChapter 12.6 - Extensions To MendelChapter 13 - Chromosomes, Mapping, And The Meiosis-inheritance ConnectionChapter 13.1 - Sex Linkage And The Chromosomal Theory Of InheritanceChapter 13.2 - Sex Chromosomes And Sex DeterminationChapter 13.3 - Exceptions To The Chromosomal Theory Of InheritanceChapter 13.4 - Genetic MappingChapter 13.5 - Human Genetic DisordersChapter 14 - Dna: The Genetic MaterialChapter 14.1 - The Nature Of The Genetic MaterialChapter 14.2 - Dna StructureChapter 14.3 - Basic Characteristics Of Dna ReplicationChapter 14.4 - Prokaryotic ReplicationChapter 14.5 - Eukaryotic ReplicationChapter 14.6 - Dna RepairChapter 15 - Genes And How They WorkChapter 15.1 - The Nature Of GenesChapter 15.2 - The Genetic CodeChapter 15.3 - Prokaryotic TranscriptionChapter 15.4 - Eukaryotic TranscriptionChapter 15.5 - Eukaryotic Pre-mrna SplicingChapter 15.6 - The Structure Of Trna And RibosomesChapter 15.7 - The Process Of TranslationChapter 15.9 - Mutation: Altered GenesChapter 16 - Control Of Gene ExpressionChapter 16.1 - Control Of Gene ExpressionChapter 16.2 - Regulatory ProteinsChapter 16.3 - Prokaryotic RegulationChapter 16.4 - Eukaryotic RegulationChapter 16.5 - Chromatin Structure Affects Gene ExpressionChapter 16.6 - Eukaryotic Posttranscriptional RegulationChapter 16.7 - Protein DegradationChapter 17 - BiotechnologyChapter 17.1 - Recombinant DnaChapter 17.2 - Amplifying Dna Using The Polymerase Chain ReactionChapter 17.3 - Creating, Correcting, And Analyzing Genetic VariationChapter 17.4 - Constructing And Using Transgenic OrganismsChapter 17.5 - Environmental ApplicationsChapter 17.6 - Medical ApplicationsChapter 17.7 - Agricultural ApplicationsChapter 18 - GenomicsChapter 18.1 - Mapping GenomesChapter 18.2 - Sequencing GenomesChapter 18.3 - Genome ProjectsChapter 18.4 - Genome Annotation And DatabasesChapter 18.5 - Comparative And Functional GenomicsChapter 18.6 - Applications Of GenomicsChapter 19 - Cellular Mechanisms Of DevelopmentChapter 19.1 - The Process Of DevelopmentChapter 19.2 - Cell DivisionChapter 19.3 - Cell DifferentiationChapter 19.4 - Nuclear ReprogrammingChapter 19.5 - Pattern FormationChapter 19.6 - Evolution Of Pattern FormationChapter 19.7 - MorphogenesisChapter 20 - Genes Within PopulationsChapter 20.1 - Genetic Variation And EvolutionChapter 20.2 - Changes In Allele FrequencyChapter 20.3 - Five Agents Of Evolutionary ChangeChapter 20.4 - Quantifying Natural SelectionChapter 20.5 - Reproductive StrategiesChapter 20.6 - Natural Selection’s Role In Maintaining VariationChapter 20.7 - Selection Acting On Traits Affected By Multiple GenesChapter 20.8 - Experimental Studies Of Natural SelectionChapter 20.9 - Interactions Among Evolutionary ForcesChapter 20.10 - The Limits Of SelectionChapter 21 - The Evidence For EvolutionChapter 21.1 - The Beaks Of Darwin’s Finches: Evidence Of Natural SelectionChapter 21.2 - Peppered Moths And Industrial Melanism: More Evidence Of SelectionChapter 21.3 - Artificial Selection: Human-initiated ChangeChapter 21.4 - Fossil Evidence Of EvolutionChapter 21.5 - Anatomical Evidence For EvolutionChapter 21.6 - Convergent Evolution And The Biogeographical RecordChapter 21.7 - Darwin’s CriticsChapter 22 - The Origin Of SpeciesChapter 22.1 - The Nature Of Species And The Biological Species ConceptChapter 22.2 - Natural Selection And Reproductive IsolationChapter 22.3 - The Role Of Genetic Drift And Natural Selection In SpeciationChapter 22.4 - The Geography Of SpeciationChapter 22.5 - Adaptive Radiation And Biological DiversityChapter 22.6 - The Pace Of EvolutionChapter 22.7 - Speciation And Extinction Through TimeChapter 23 - Systematics, Phylogenies, And Comparative BiologyChapter 23.1 - SystematicsChapter 23.2 - CladisticsChapter 23.3 - Systematics And ClassificationChapter 23.4 - Phylogenetics And Comparative BiologyChapter 23.5 - Phylogenetics And Disease EvolutionChapter 24 - Genome EvolutionChapter 24.1 - Comparative GenomicsChapter 24.2 - Genome SizeChapter 24.3 - Evolution Within GenomesChapter 24.4 - Gene Function And Expression PatternsChapter 24.5 - Applying Comparative GenomicsChapter 25 - The Origin And Diversity Of LifeChapter 25.1 - Deep TimeChapter 25.2 - Origins Of LifeChapter 25.3 - Evidence For Early LifeChapter 25.4 - Earth’s Changing SystemChapter 25.5 - Ever-changing Life On EarthChapter 26 - VirusesChapter 26.1 - The Nature Of VirusesChapter 26.2 - Viral DiversityChapter 26.3 - Bacteriophage: Bacterial VirusesChapter 26.4 - Viral Diseases Of HumansChapter 26.5 - Prions And Viroids: Infectious Subviral ParticlesChapter 27 - ProkaryotesChapter 27.1 - Prokaryotic DiversityChapter 27.2 - Prokaryotic Cell StructureChapter 27.3 - Prokaryotic GeneticsChapter 27.4 - The Metabolic Diversity Of ProkaryotesChapter 27.5 - Microbial EcologyChapter 27.6 - Bacterial Diseases Of HumansChapter 28 - ProtistsChapter 28.1 - Eukaryotic Origins And EndosymbiosisChapter 28.2 - Overview Of ProtistsChapter 28.3 - Characteristics Of The ExcavataChapter 28.4 - Characteristics Of The ChromalveolataChapter 28.5 - Characteristics Of The RhizariaChapter 28.6 - Characteristics Of The ArchaeplastidaChapter 28.7 - Characteristics Of The AmoebozoaChapter 28.8 - Characteristics Of The OpisthokontaChapter 29 - Seedless PlantsChapter 29.1 - Origin Of Land PlantsChapter 29.2 - Bryophytes Have A Dominant Gametophyte GenerationChapter 29.3 - Tracheophytes Have A Dominant Sporophyte GenerationChapter 29.4 - Lycophytes Diverged From The Main Lineage Of Vascular PlantsChapter 29.5 - Pterophytes Are The Ferns And Their RelativesChapter 30 - Seed PlantsChapter 30.1 - The Evolution Of Seed PlantsChapter 30.2 - Gymnosperms: Plants With “naked Seeds”Chapter 30.3 - Angiosperms: The Flowering PlantsChapter 30.4 - SeedsChapter 30.5 - FruitsChapter 31 - FungiChapter 31.1 - Classification Of FungiChapter 31.2 - Fungal Forms, Nutrition, And ReproductionChapter 31.3 - Fungal EcologyChapter 31.4 - Fungal Parasites And PathogensChapter 31.5 - Basidiomycota: The Club (basidium) FungiChapter 31.6 - Ascomycota: The Sac (ascus) FungiChapter 31.7 - Glomeromycota: Asexual Plant SymbiontsChapter 31.8 - Zygomycota: Zygote-producing FungiChapter 31.9 - Chytridiomycota And Relatives: Fungi With ZoosporesChapter 31.10 - Microsporidia: Unicellular ParasitesChapter 32 - Animal Diversity And The Evolution Of Body PlansChapter 32.1 - Some General Features Of AnimalsChapter 32.2 - Evolution Of The Animal Body PlanChapter 32.3 - Animal PhylogenyChapter 32.4 - Parazoa: Animals That Lack Specialized TissuesChapter 32.5 - Eumetazoa: Animals With True TissuesChapter 32.6 - The BilateriaChapter 33 - ProtosomesChapter 33.1 - The Clades Of ProtostomesChapter 33.2 - Flatworms (platyhelminthes)Chapter 33.3 - Rotifers (rotifera)Chapter 33.4 - Mollusks (mollusca)Chapter 33.5 - Ribbon Worms (nemertea)Chapter 33.6 - Annelids (annelida)Chapter 33.7 - Bryozoans (bryozoa) And Brachiopods (brachiopoda)Chapter 33.8 - Roundworms (nematoda)Chapter 33.9 - Arthropods (arthropoda)Chapter 34 - DeuterostomesChapter 34.1 - EchinodermsChapter 34.2 - ChordatesChapter 34.3 - Nonvertebrate ChordatesChapter 34.4 - Vertebrate ChordatesChapter 34.5 - FishesChapter 34.6 - AmphibiansChapter 34.7 - ReptilesChapter 34.8 - BirdsChapter 34.9 - MammalsChapter 34.10 - Evolution Of The PrimatesChapter 35 - Plant FormChapter 35.1 - Organization Of The Plant Body: An OverviewChapter 35.2 - Plant TissuesChapter 35.3 - Roots: Anchoring And Absorption StructuresChapter 35.4 - Stems: Support For Above-ground OrgansChapter 35.5 - Leaves: Photosynthetic OrgansChapter 36 - Transport In PlantsChapter 36.1 - Transport MechanismsChapter 36.2 - Water And Mineral AbsorptionChapter 36.3 - Xylem TransportChapter 36.4 - Rate Of TranspirationChapter 36.5 - Water-stress ResponsesChapter 36.6 - Phloem TransportChapter 37 - Plant Nutrition And SoilsChapter 37.1 - Soils: The Substrates On Which Plants DependChapter 37.2 - Plant NutrientsChapter 37.3 - Special Nutritional StrategiesChapter 37.4 - Carbon–nitrogen Balance And Global ChangeChapter 37.5 - PhytoremediationChapter 38 - Plant Defense ResponsesChapter 38.1 - Physical DefensesChapter 38.2 - Chemical DefensesChapter 38.3 - Animals That Protect PlantsChapter 38.4 - Systemic Responses To InvadersChapter 39 - Sensory Systems In PlantsChapter 39.1 - Responses To LightChapter 39.2 - Responses To GravityChapter 39.3 - Responses To Mechanical StimuliChapter 39.4 - Responses To Water And TemperatureChapter 39.5 - Hormones And Sensory SystemsChapter 40 - Plant ReproductionChapter 40.1 - Reproductive DevelopmentChapter 40.2 - Making FlowersChapter 40.3 - Structure And Evolution Of FlowersChapter 40.4 - Pollination And FertilizationChapter 40.5 - Embryo DevelopmentChapter 40.6 - GerminationChapter 40.7 - Asexual ReproductionChapter 40.8 - Plant Life SpansChapter 41 - The Animal Body And Principles Of RegulationChapter 41.1 - Organization Of Animal BodiesChapter 41.2 - Epithelial TissueChapter 41.3 - Connective TissueChapter 41.4 - Muscle TissueChapter 41.5 - Nerve TissueChapter 41.6 - Overview Of Vertebrate Organ SystemsChapter 41.7 - HomeostasisChapter 41.8 - Regulating Body TemperatureChapter 42 - The Nervous SystemChapter 42.1 - Nervous System OrganizationChapter 42.2 - The Mechanism Of Nerve Impulse TransmissionChapter 42.3 - Synapses: Where Neurons Communicate With Other CellsChapter 42.4 - The Central Nervous System: Brain And Spinal CordChapter 42.5 - The Peripheral Nervous System: Spinal And Cranial NervesChapter 43 - Sensory SystemsChapter 43.1 - Overview Of Sensory ReceptorsChapter 43.2 - Thermoreceptors, Nociceptors, And Electromagnetic Receptors: Temperature, Pain, And Magnetic FieldsChapter 43.3 - Mechanoreceptors I: Touch, Pressure, And Body PositionChapter 43.4 - Mechanoreceptors Ii: Hearing, Vibration, And BalanceChapter 43.5 - Chemoreceptors: Taste, Smell, And PhChapter 43.6 - VisionChapter 43.7 - Evolution And Development Of EyesChapter 44 - The Endocrine SystemChapter 44.1 - Regulation Of Body Processes By Chemical MessengersChapter 44.2 - Overview Of Hormone ActionChapter 44.3 - The Pituitary And Hypothalamus: The Body’s Control CentersChapter 44.4 - The Major Peripheral Endocrine GlandsChapter 44.5 - Other Hormones And Their EffectsChapter 45 - The Musculoskeletal SystemChapter 45.1 - Types Of Skeletal SystemsChapter 45.2 - A Closer Look At BoneChapter 45.3 - JointsChapter 45.4 - Muscle ContractionChapter 45.5 - Vertebrate Skeleton Evolution And Modes Of LocomotionChapter 46 - The Digestive SystemChapter 46.1 - Types Of Digestive SystemsChapter 46.2 - The Mouth And Teeth: Food Capture And Bulk ProcessingChapter 46.3 - The Esophagus And The Stomach: The Early Stages Of DigestionChapter 46.4 - The Intestines: Breakdown, Absorption, And EliminationChapter 46.5 - Accessory Organ FunctionChapter 46.6 - Neural And Hormonal Regulation Of The Digestive TractChapter 46.7 - Food Energy, Energy Expenditure, And Essential NutrientsChapter 46.8 - Variations In Vertebrate Digestive SystemsChapter 47 - The Respiratory SystemChapter 47.1 - Gas Exchange Across Respiratory SurfacesChapter 47.2 - Gills, Cutaneous Respiration, And Tracheal SystemsChapter 47.3 - LungsChapter 47.4 - Structures, Mechanisms, And Control Of Ventilation In MammalsChapter 47.5 - Transport Of Gases In Body FluidsChapter 48 - The Circulatory SystemChapter 48.1 - Invertebrate Circulatory SystemsChapter 48.2 - The Components Of Vertebrate BloodChapter 48.3 - Vertebrate Circulatory SystemsChapter 48.4 - Cardiac Cycle, Electrical Conduction, Ecg, And Cardiac OutputChapter 48.5 - Blood Pressure And Blood VesselsChapter 49 - Osmotic Regulation And The Urinary SystemChapter 49.1 - Osmolarity And Osmotic BalanceChapter 49.2 - Nitrogenous Wastes: Ammonia, Urea, And Uric AcidChapter 49.3 - Osmoregulatory OrgansChapter 49.4 - Evolution Of The Vertebrate KidneyChapter 49.5 - The Mammalian KidneyChapter 49.6 - Hormonal Control Of Osmoregulatory FunctionsChapter 50 - The Immune SystemChapter 50.1 - Innate ImmunityChapter 50.2 - Adaptive ImmunityChapter 50.3 - Cell-mediated ImmunityChapter 50.4 - Humoral Immunity And Antibody ProductionChapter 50.5 - Autoimmunity And HypersensitivityChapter 50.6 - Antibodies In Medical Treatment And DiagnosisChapter 50.7 - Pathogens That Evade The Immune SystemChapter 51 - The Reproductive SystemChapter 51.1 - Animal Reproductive StrategiesChapter 51.2 - Vertebrate Fertilization And DevelopmentChapter 51.3 - Structure And Function Of The Human Male Reproductive SystemChapter 51.4 - Structure And Function Of The Human Female Reproductive SystemChapter 51.5 - Contraception And Infertility TreatmentsChapter 52 - Animal DevelopmentChapter 52.1 - FertilizationChapter 52.2 - Cleavage And The Blastula StageChapter 52.3 - GastrulationChapter 52.4 - OrganogenesisChapter 52.5 - Vertebrate Axis And Pattern FormationChapter 52.6 - Human DevelopmentChapter 53 - Behavioral BiologyChapter 53.1 - The Natural History Of BehaviorChapter 53.2 - Nerve Cells, Neurotransmitters, Hormones, And BehaviorChapter 53.3 - Behavioral GeneticsChapter 53.4 - LearningChapter 53.5 - The Development Of BehaviorChapter 53.6 - Animal CognitionChapter 53.7 - Orientation And Migratory BehaviorChapter 53.8 - Animal CommunicationChapter 53.9 - Behavior And EvolutionChapter 53.10 - Behavioral EcologyChapter 53.11 - Reproductive StrategiesChapter 53.12 - AltruismChapter 53.13 - The Evolution Of Group Living And Animal SocietiesChapter 54 - Ecology Of Individuals And PopulationsChapter 54.1 - The Environmental ChallengesChapter 54.2 - Populations: Groups Of A Single Species In One PlaceChapter 54.3 - Population Demography And DynamicsChapter 54.4 - Life History And The Cost Of ReproductionChapter 54.5 - Environmental Limits To Population GrowthChapter 54.6 - Factors That Regulate PopulationsChapter 54.7 - Human Population GrowthChapter 55 - Community EcologyChapter 55.1 - Biological Communities: Species Living TogetherChapter 55.2 - The Ecological Niche ConceptChapter 55.3 - Predator–prey RelationshipsChapter 55.4 - The Many Types Of Species InteractionsChapter 55.5 - Ecological Succession, Disturbance, And Species RichnessChapter 56 - Dynamics Of EcosystemsChapter 56.1 - Biogeochemical CyclesChapter 56.2 - The Flow Of Energy In EcosystemsChapter 56.3 - Trophic-level InteractionsChapter 56.4 - Biodiversity And Ecosystem StabilityChapter 56.5 - Island BiogeographyChapter 57 - The Biosphere And Human ImpactsChapter 57.1 - Ecosystem Effects Of Sun, Wind, And WaterChapter 57.2 - Earth’s BiomesChapter 57.3 - Freshwater HabitatsChapter 57.4 - Marine HabitatsChapter 57.5 - Human Impacts On The Biosphere: Pollution And Resource DepletionChapter 57.6 - Human Impacts On The Biosphere: Climate ChangeChapter 58 - Conservation BiologyChapter 58.1 - Overview Of The Biodiversity CrisisChapter 58.2 - The Value Of BiodiversityChapter 58.3 - Factors Responsible For ExtinctionChapter 58.4 - An Evolutionary Perspective On The Biodiversity CrisisChapter 58.5 - Approaches For Preserving Endangered Species And Ecosystems

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Reason for the correct statement: The prokaryotes do not have a nucleus the nuclear material is...Cell division is an important event in which the division of parental cells leads to the two or more...The problems related to self-fertilization or cross-fertilization were found if the Mendel had...Mendel did not examine plant height and pot shape in his dihybrid cross and the Gene's for these...The X-ray crystallography of the DNA is found by Rosalind Franklin. The structural properties of the...Beadle and Tatum selected mutants that can survive and grow on minimal medium with arginine. This...The phenotype of a repressor mutation in which binding of DNA is prevented would be the expression...Humans are the eukaryotic diploid organisms, in which 23 pairs or 46 chromosomes are present. The...The fewest number of clones that could be used to construct the physical maps is clone A and clone...The different cells of the body undergo diverse cell fate due to molecule signalling and...The alleles for the color of the coat of the cat consist of dominant and recessive alleles. The...Darwin’s finches are an example of evolution by natural selection. Darwin observed that the species...Adaptive radiation is an important concept in evolutionary biology. The adaptive radiation is one of...The matrix of six animal species showing different vertebrate characters. Traits: OrganismAmniotic...Thesize of the human genome is 3384 megabase pairs, whereas the genome size of rice, Oryza sativa is...Reason for the correct statement: Miller and Urey created an artificial environment in the...Reason for the correct answer: Retroviruses possess the reverse transcriptase enzyme. This is...The plasmid and the fragments of the genetic material can be excised with the help of specific...Pictorial representation: The figure represents the phylogenetic relationship between red, green,...The origins of tracheophytes: Tracheophytes are also called as vascular plants. The vascular plants...The pollen tube is a tube through which the sperm from the pollen reaches the egg cells and...Cryptoporous volvatus is the fungus that produces spores to produce the more daughter cells. The...Acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and coelomate do not serve as reliable indicators of phylogenetic...Reason for the correct statement: Flame cells, which are present in the flatworm poses an excretory...Paraphyletic taxon includes only common ancestors but not all of its descendants. It is known for...The meristem is classified by their location in the plant as lateral (in vascular and cork cambia),...What would w, s, and p of the cell in figure 36.5a be at equilibrium if it had been placed in a...A tree trunk is the stem and major wooden axis of a tree. The tree trunk is an essential...Explanation: The copper is the micronutrient which is required in ppm for the growth of the plant....Ricin is the combination of two compounds, ricin A and ricin B, in which ricin A is less toxic and...The red light is absorbed by the leaves at a greater rate than the far-red light, as the sunlight...The embryogenesis refers to the process taking place after the fertilization of an ovule producing a...In the given graph, it is predicted that small mammals, with a proportionately larger surface area,...The graded potential (mV) in the axonal membrane is shown below: 1-represents the weak excitation...The wavelength of ultraviolet (UV) light is shorter than the blue light given in the figure. The...A metamorphosis is an important event of tadpole life. Metamorphosis refers to the transformation of...When the somatic motor neuron delivers electrochemical impulses, it stimulates the contraction of...The length of the small intestine is approximately 4.5 m. However, the surface area of the small...The rate of diffusion is affected by several factors like increase in surface area, temperature,...The size of blood vessels varies in each one of them. The aorta has the largest radius, while the...Reabsorption refers to the selective movement of solutes, like amino acids, glucose, and several...The availability of huge amounts of pure monoclonal antibodies has let the development of highly...Menstruation is the monthly bleeding in women. During the end of the menstrual cycle, the level of...Neural crest cell under the surface of ectoderm differentiates into pigment cells of the skin....The behavioural variation in the rats was determined by an experiment throughout several...The tropical lizard has a behavioral system that helps it to manage a fairly uniform temperature of...An ecotone separates serpentine soil and normal soil. In this area, the normal soil is 7-8m apart...The clearing of the forest cover of Hubbard Brook in the year 1965 and 1966 lead to a runoff of a...Some regions of the earth’s surface receive more energy from the Sun as compared to others. Seasonal...The conservation of the hotspots or endemic species-rich areas is essential to protect the world’s...

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