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Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079
Textbook Problem

Write structural formulas for all the possible halogenated hydrocarbon products from the monochlorination of the following alkanes or cycloalkanes.

  1. a. Ethane
  2. b. Butane
  3. c. 2-Methylpropane
  4. d. Cyclopentane

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Structural formula for all the possible monochlorinated products obtained from halogenation of ethane has to be written.

Concept Introduction:

Alkanes are linear chain saturated hydrocarbons.  The reactivity of alkanes are very less.  They can be heated for a very long time in strong acids and bases without any reaction.  Even strong reducing and strong oxidizing agents have less effect on alkanes.

Alkanes are not completely inert.  Two important reactions that alkanes undergo are combustion and halogenation.

Combustion reaction is the one where reaction occurs between substance and oxygen which proceeds with evolution of light and heat.  Due to the heat produced when alkanes are made to undergo combustion with oxygen, it is used as fuel.

Halogenation is a chemical reaction between a substance and halogen.  The product of halogenation reaction is that one or more halogens are incorporated into molecules of the substance.  Halogenation of hydrocarbon gives hydrocarbon derivatives as product where halogen atoms are substituted instead of hydrogen atoms.

Halogenation reaction of alkane is an example of substitution reaction.  This is a reaction where a part of reacting molecule replaces an atom or group of atoms in hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon derivative.

Cycloalkanes are also similar to those of alkanes.  Cycloalkanes also undergo combustion and halogenation reaction.

Explanation

Halogenation is a chemical reaction between a substance and halogen.  The product of halogenation reaction is that one or more halogens are incorporated into molecules of the substance.  Halogenation of hydrocarbon gives hydrocarbon derivatives as product where halogen atoms are substituted instead of hydrogen atoms.

Halogenation reaction of alkane is an example of substitution reaction.  This is a reaction where a part of reacting molecule replaces an atom or group of atoms in hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon derivative.

General reaction for halogenation of alkane can be given as shown below,

    RH + X2 halogenation RX + HXalkane &

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Structural formula for all the possible monochlorinated products obtained from halogenation of butane has to be written.

Concept Introduction:

Alkanes are linear chain saturated hydrocarbons.  The reactivity of alkanes are very less.  They can be heated for a very long time in strong acids and bases without any reaction.  Even strong reducing and strong oxidizing agents have less effect on alkanes.

Alkanes are not completely inert.  Two important reactions that alkanes undergo are combustion and halogenation.

Combustion reaction is the one where reaction occurs between substance and oxygen which proceeds with evolution of light and heat.  Due to the heat produced when alkanes are made to undergo combustion with oxygen, it is used as fuel.

Halogenation is a chemical reaction between a substance and halogen.  The product of halogenation reaction is that one or more halogens are incorporated into molecules of the substance.  Halogenation of hydrocarbon gives hydrocarbon derivatives as product where halogen atoms are substituted instead of hydrogen atoms.

Halogenation reaction of alkane is an example of substitution reaction.  This is a reaction where a part of reacting molecule replaces an atom or group of atoms in hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon derivative.

Cycloalkanes are also similar to those of alkanes.  Cycloalkanes also undergo combustion and halogenation reaction.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Structural formula for all the possible monochlorinated products obtained from halogenation of 2-methylpropane has to be written.

Concept Introduction:

Alkanes are linear chain saturated hydrocarbons.  The reactivity of alkanes are very less.  They can be heated for a very long time in strong acids and bases without any reaction.  Even strong reducing and strong oxidizing agents have less effect on alkanes.

Alkanes are not completely inert.  Two important reactions that alkanes undergo are combustion and halogenation.

Combustion reaction is the one where reaction occurs between substance and oxygen which proceeds with evolution of light and heat.  Due to the heat produced when alkanes are made to undergo combustion with oxygen, it is used as fuel.

Halogenation is a chemical reaction between a substance and halogen.  The product of halogenation reaction is that one or more halogens are incorporated into molecules of the substance.  Halogenation of hydrocarbon gives hydrocarbon derivatives as product where halogen atoms are substituted instead of hydrogen atoms.

Halogenation reaction of alkane is an example of substitution reaction.  This is a reaction where a part of reacting molecule replaces an atom or group of atoms in hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon derivative.

Cycloalkanes are also similar to those of alkanes.  Cycloalkanes also undergo combustion and halogenation reaction.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Structural formula for all the possible monochlorinated products obtained from halogenation of cyclopentane has to be written.

Concept Introduction:

Alkanes are linear chain saturated hydrocarbons.  The reactivity of alkanes are very less.  They can be heated for a very long time in strong acids and bases without any reaction.  Even strong reducing and strong oxidizing agents have less effect on alkanes.

Alkanes are not completely inert.  Two important reactions that alkanes undergo are combustion and halogenation.

Combustion reaction is the one where reaction occurs between substance and oxygen which proceeds with evolution of light and heat.  Due to the heat produced when alkanes are made to undergo combustion with oxygen, it is used as fuel.

Halogenation is a chemical reaction between a substance and halogen.  The product of halogenation reaction is that one or more halogens are incorporated into molecules of the substance.  Halogenation of hydrocarbon gives hydrocarbon derivatives as product where halogen atoms are substituted instead of hydrogen atoms.

Halogenation reaction of alkane is an example of substitution reaction.  This is a reaction where a part of reacting molecule replaces an atom or group of atoms in hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon derivative.

Cycloalkanes are also similar to those of alkanes.  Cycloalkanes also undergo combustion and halogenation reaction.

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