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Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079
Textbook Problem

Draw condensed structural formulas for the following branched alkanes.

  1. a. 5-(sec-Butyl)decane
  2. b. 4,4-Diisopropyloctane
  3. c. 5-Isobutyl-2,3-dimethylnonane
  4. d. 4-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)octane

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The condensed structural formula for given branched alkane has to be drawn.

Concept Introduction:

Structural formula:

The structural representation of organic compound can be done in 2D and 3D.  In two-dimensional representation, there are four types of representation in which an organic compound can be drawn.  They are,

  • Expanded structural formula
  • Condensed structural formula
  • Skeletal structural formula
  • Line-angle structural formula

Structural formula which shows all the atoms in a molecule along with all the bonds that is connecting the atoms present in the molecule is known as Expanded structural formula.

Structural formula in which grouping of atoms are done and in which the central atoms along with the other atoms are connected to them are treated as group is known as Condensed structural formula.

Structural formula that shows the bonding between carbon atoms alone in the molecule ignoring the hydrogen atoms being shown explicitly is known as Skeletal structural formula.

Structural formula where a line represent carbon‑carbon bond and the carbon atom is considered to be present in each point and the end of lines is known as Line-angle structural formula.

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 1, Problem 1.83EP , additional homework tip  1

IUPAC nomenclature of branched alkyl groups:

Alkyl groups are named according to IUPAC nomenclature.  The name is obtained considering the parent alkane name and replacing “-ane” with “-yl”.  In naming branched chain alkyl groups, this becomes little complicated.  Hence, IUPAC system for giving name to such larger groups names them by considering as if they were themselves a separate compound.  Three rules are followed while naming the larger groups.

Rule 1:

Longest continuous chain which begins at the point of attachment of the alkyl group becomes the base name for the alkyl group.

Rule 2:

Base chain that is identified is numbered in a way beginning at the point of attachment.

Rule 3:

The substituents that are present in the base chain is listed in alphabetical order using the locant as prefixes whenever necessary.

Explanation

Given name of alkane is 5-(sec-butyl)decane.

From the given IUPAC name, it is understood that the parent alkane is decane.  Decane is a ten carbon chain alkane.

In the fifth carbon atom, sec-butyl group is substituted...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The condensed structural formula for given branched alkane has to be drawn.

Concept Introduction:

Structural formula:

The structural representation of organic compound can be done in 2D and 3D.  In two-dimensional representation, there are four types of representation in which an organic compound can be drawn.  They are,

  • Expanded structural formula
  • Condensed structural formula
  • Skeletal structural formula
  • Line-angle structural formula

Structural formula which shows all the atoms in a molecule along with all the bonds that is connecting the atoms present in the molecule is known as Expanded structural formula.

Structural formula in which grouping of atoms are done and in which the central atoms along with the other atoms are connected to them are treated as group is known as Condensed structural formula.

Structural formula that shows the bonding between carbon atoms alone in the molecule ignoring the hydrogen atoms being shown explicitly is known as Skeletal structural formula.

Structural formula where a line represent carbon‑carbon bond and the carbon atom is considered to be present in each point and the end of lines is known as Line-angle structural formula.

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 1, Problem 1.83EP , additional homework tip  2

IUPAC nomenclature of branched alkyl groups:

Alkyl groups are named according to IUPAC nomenclature.  The name is obtained considering the parent alkane name and replacing “-ane” with “-yl”.  In naming branched chain alkyl groups, this becomes little complicated.  Hence, IUPAC system for giving name to such larger groups names them by considering as if they were themselves a separate compound.  Three rules are followed while naming the larger groups.

Rule 1:

Longest continuous chain which begins at the point of attachment of the alkyl group becomes the base name for the alkyl group.

Rule 2:

Base chain that is identified is numbered in a way beginning at the point of attachment.

Rule 3:

The substituents that are present in the base chain is listed in alphabetical order using the locant as prefixes whenever necessary.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The condensed structural formula for given branched alkane has to be drawn.

Concept Introduction:

Structural formula:

The structural representation of organic compound can be done in 2D and 3D.  In two-dimensional representation, there are four types of representation in which an organic compound can be drawn.  They are,

  • Expanded structural formula
  • Condensed structural formula
  • Skeletal structural formula
  • Line-angle structural formula

Structural formula which shows all the atoms in a molecule along with all the bonds that is connecting the atoms present in the molecule is known as Expanded structural formula.

Structural formula in which grouping of atoms are done and in which the central atoms along with the other atoms are connected to them are treated as group is known as Condensed structural formula.

Structural formula that shows the bonding between carbon atoms alone in the molecule ignoring the hydrogen atoms being shown explicitly is known as Skeletal structural formula.

Structural formula where a line represent carbon‑carbon bond and the carbon atom is considered to be present in each point and the end of lines is known as Line-angle structural formula.

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 1, Problem 1.83EP , additional homework tip  3

IUPAC nomenclature of branched alkyl groups:

Alkyl groups are named according to IUPAC nomenclature.  The name is obtained considering the parent alkane name and replacing “-ane” with “-yl”.  In naming branched chain alkyl groups, this becomes little complicated.  Hence, IUPAC system for giving name to such larger groups names them by considering as if they were themselves a separate compound.  Three rules are followed while naming the larger groups.

Rule 1:

Longest continuous chain which begins at the point of attachment of the alkyl group becomes the base name for the alkyl group.

Rule 2:

Base chain that is identified is numbered in a way beginning at the point of attachment.

Rule 3:

The substituents that are present in the base chain is listed in alphabetical order using the locant as prefixes whenever necessary.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The condensed structural formula for given branched alkane has to be drawn.

Concept Introduction:

Structural formula:

The structural representation of organic compound can be done in 2D and 3D.  In two-dimensional representation, there are four types of representation in which an organic compound can be drawn.  They are,

  • Expanded structural formula
  • Condensed structural formula
  • Skeletal structural formula
  • Line-angle structural formula

Structural formula which shows all the atoms in a molecule along with all the bonds that is connecting the atoms present in the molecule is known as Expanded structural formula.

Structural formula in which grouping of atoms are done and in which the central atoms along with the other atoms are connected to them are treated as group is known as Condensed structural formula.

Structural formula that shows the bonding between carbon atoms alone in the molecule ignoring the hydrogen atoms being shown explicitly is known as Skeletal structural formula.

Structural formula where a line represent carbon‑carbon bond and the carbon atom is considered to be present in each point and the end of lines is known as Line-angle structural formula.

Organic And Biological Chemistry, Chapter 1, Problem 1.83EP , additional homework tip  4

IUPAC nomenclature of branched alkyl groups:

Alkyl groups are named according to IUPAC nomenclature.  The name is obtained considering the parent alkane name and replacing “-ane” with “-yl”.  In naming branched chain alkyl groups, this becomes little complicated.  Hence, IUPAC system for giving name to such larger groups names them by considering as if they were themselves a separate compound.  Three rules are followed while naming the larger groups.

Rule 1:

Longest continuous chain which begins at the point of attachment of the alkyl group becomes the base name for the alkyl group.

Rule 2:

Base chain that is identified is numbered in a way beginning at the point of attachment.

Rule 3:

The substituents that are present in the base chain is listed in alphabetical order using the locant as prefixes whenever necessary.

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