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Chemistry: Principles and Reactions

8th Edition
William L. Masterton + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305079373

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: Principles and Reactions

8th Edition
William L. Masterton + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305079373
Textbook Problem

Consider the system

4NH 3 ( g ) + 3 O 2 ( g ) 2 N 2 ( g ) + 6 H 2 O ( l ) Δ H = 1530.4 kJ

(a) How will the amount of ammonia at equilibrium be affected by

1. removing O2(g)?

2. adding N2(g)?

3. adding water?

4. expanding the container at constant pressure?

5. increasing the temperature?

(b) Which of the above factors will increase the value of K? Which will decrease it?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The change in the amount of ammonia needs to be determined, if the equilibrium is disturbed.

Concept Introduction:

According to Le Chatelier’s principle, if at equilibrium, any change in temperature, concentration or pressure is applied to a system, the shift in equilibrium takes place to counteract the change.

Also on compressing a system, the total pressure of the system increases thus, reaction shifts to decrease the total pressure and number of moles of gaseous species.

Opposite to this on expansion, the total pressure of the system decreases thus, reaction shifts to increase the total pressure and number of moles of gaseous species.

Only change in temperature can change the value of K, in other cases the value of K remains the same.

There are 3 conditions that can change the equilibrium direction in a system:

  1. Addition and removal of gaseous species.
  2. Expansion and compression of the system.
  3. Change in temperature of the system.
Explanation

The given equilibrium reaction is as follows:

  4NH3(g)+3O2(g)2N2(g)+6H2O(l)

The change in enthalpy of the reaction is -1530.49 kJ.

(1)

If oxygen gas is removed from the system in equilibrium, the pressure of oxygen gas decreases thus, equilibrium shifts in the direction to increase the pressure or oxygen gas. Thus, equilibrium shifts in backward direction and amount of ammonia gas increases.

(2)

When nitrogen gas is added to the system, reaction shifts in the direction to decrease the pressure of nitrogen gas. Therefore, reaction shifts in backward direction and amount of ammonia gas increases.

(3)

If water is added to a system at equilibrium, there will be no change in the equilibrium

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The factors resulting increase in the value of K or decrease in the value of K needs to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Only change in temperature can change the value of K, in other cases the value of K remains the same.

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