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Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692
Chapter 13, Problem 7E
Textbook Problem
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List four common laboratory bases and their uses.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Four common laboratory bases and their uses are to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

A base is a chemical species that donates electrons, accepts protons or releases hydroxide ions (OH) in solutions. Bases display certain characteristics properties that can be used to identify them. They tend to be slippery to touch, taste bitter, readily react with acids to form salts and catalyze certain reactions.

These particular substances produce hydroxide ions (OH) and thus, are also classified as Arrhenius bases.

Bases react with acids to form salt and water.

Base turns litmus paper blue.

Toxins and alkoxides are bases that are carcinogenic in nature and cause a number of side-effects, if consumed.

Some common bases are sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate and ammonia.

Sodium bicarbonate is commonly known as baking soda, having chemical formula (NaHCO3). It is a salt composed of sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO3). It appears as a white crystalline, odorless solid having pH nearly 8-8.5, which indicates that it is an alkaline salt and has a bitter taste.

Calcium carbonate is the principle component of limestone. It is also found in pearls, shells in the marine organisms, and is commonly used as chalk in classrooms. It is a salt of the bivalent calcium cation (Ca2+) and the bi-dentate carbonate anion (CO32). It is an odorless, fine crystalline powder and has a wide range of applications.

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen having chemical formula (NH3). It is a colorless gas, has a pungent odor and causes irritation to eyes, nose, throat, and skin. Aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as ammonium hydroxide.

It is popularly known as caustic soda, having molecular formula (NaOH). It is a white solid compound, which consists of sodium cations (Na+) and hydroxide anions (OH). It is highly soluble in water and readily absorbs moisture from the air.

Explanation of Solution

Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3)

It is commonly known as baking soda, having chemical formula (NaHCO3). It is a salt composed of sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO3). It appears as a white crystalline, odorless solid having pH nearly 8-8.5, which indicates that it is an alkaline salt and has a bitter taste.

It is widely used, not only in laboratories and industries, but also in households. A few of its applications are as:

It is used to extinguish small grease or electric fires by being thrown over the fire because sodium carbonate releases carbon dioxide when heated. The carbon dioxide does not react with burning materials and also does not conduct electricity. Therefore, it is the ideal gas to be used as an extinguisher.

It also helps treat acid indigestion and heartburn. The stomach contains acid (HCl), which helps breakdown food but sometimes excess secretion of acid in the gastric glands causes an imbalance in the pH level of the stomach, and sodium bicarbonate is used as an antacid, which helps maintain the pH of the stomach by neutralizing the excess acid.

NaHCO3 + HCl  NaCl + H2O + CO2

It is primarily used in baking as a leavening agent. When it reacts with an acid, it releases carbon dioxide, which causes expansion and softens of batter. It provides a unique texture that is used for preparing cakes, pancakes, bread, and pizza base and so on.

It is used as a cleansing agent because it is a mild alkali and causes dirt and grease to dissolve in water, which is important for effective cleaning of the surface. It is mild, therefore, it is safe and effective to use as a glass cleaner, plastic cleaner and so on.

Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)

Calcium carbonate is the principle component of limestone. It is also found in pearls, shells in the marine organisms, and is commonly used as chalk in classrooms.

It is a salt of the bivalent calcium cation (Ca2+) and the bi-dentate carbonate anion (CO32). It is an odorless, fine crystalline powder and has a wide range of applications. Some of them are as:

It is a commonly used mineral in building materials and constructional applications. It not only improves performance but also provides cost benefits to a wide range of industrial environments. But due to weathering, it is now used as a raw material.

It also used in drugs as it acts an antacid to relieve heart burn, acid indigestion and an upset stomach. Also, it is used to treat or prevent low calcium levels in the people who do not get enough calcium from their diet.

It is used as a raw material for refining sugar from sugar beet. It is heated with anthracite to form calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. They both help precipitate out the impurities present in raw sugar.

It is also used in toothpaste as it represents a safe and a natural choice of providing abrasions in the toothpaste and helps remove plaque from teeth

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Chapter 13 Solutions

Chemistry In Focus
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Ch. 13 - Why are bases not commonly found in foods?Ch. 13 - List four common laboratory bases and their uses.Ch. 13 - What are the Arrhenius definitions of acids and...Ch. 13 - What are the Brnsted-Lowry definitions of acids...Ch. 13 - What is the difference between a strong acid and a...Ch. 13 - The pH scale is a logarithmic scale. What is meant...Ch. 13 - What pH range is considered acidic? Basic?...Ch. 13 - What acid is responsible for the sour taste of...Ch. 13 - What is pickling? What acid is responsible for the...Ch. 13 - Where can you find acetic acid?Ch. 13 - What is aspirin? How does it work?Ch. 13 - List several common acids and where they might be...Ch. 13 - What acids are present in wines? What kind of...Ch. 13 - What is an alkaloid?Ch. 13 - What causes acid indigestion? List some common...Ch. 13 - How does an antacid work?Ch. 13 - Explain how a leavening agent works.Ch. 13 - Which pollutants are responsible for acid rain?...Ch. 13 - Why is rain acidic even in the absence of...Ch. 13 - How acidic is rain in the United States? Can this...Ch. 13 - Why can some lakes and soils tolerate acid rain...Ch. 13 - What are the effects of acid rain on the...Ch. 13 - What is being done to decrease the acidity of U.S....Ch. 13 - Write a chemical equation to show the...Ch. 13 - Write a chemical equation to show the...Ch. 13 - Identify the Brnsted-Lowry acid and base in each...Ch. 13 - Identify the Brnsted-Lowry acid and base in each...Ch. 13 - Write a chemical equation using Lewis structures...Ch. 13 - Write a chemical equation using Lewis structures...Ch. 13 - A chemist makes two solutions. One is a 0.01-MHCl...Ch. 13 - A chemist makes a 0.001-MNaOH solution and a...Ch. 13 - Give the pH that corresponds to each solution and...Ch. 13 - Give the pH that corresponds to each solution and...Ch. 13 - What is the [H3O+] in a solution with a pH of 4?Ch. 13 - What is the [H3O+] in a solution with a pH of 11?Ch. 13 - Write chemical reactions to show how each antacid...Ch. 13 - Write chemical reactions to show how each antacid...Ch. 13 - Suppose that the stomach contains...Ch. 13 - Suppose that 250.0 mL of a basic solution is 0.100...Ch. 13 - Write a chemical reaction to show how SO2 forms...Ch. 13 - Write a chemical reaction to show how NO2 forms...Ch. 13 - Write a short paragraph explaining why a person...Ch. 13 - Examine the household chemicals shelf at your...Ch. 13 - Determine from the following molecular view of a...Ch. 13 - Determine from the following molecular view of a...

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