   Chapter 21, Problem 100GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Halogens form polyhalide ions. Sketch Lewis electron dot structures and molecular structures for the following ions:(a) I3−(b) BrCl2−(c) ClF2+(d) An iodide ion and two iodine molecules form the I5− ion. Here, the ion has five I atoms in a row, but the ion is not linear. Draw the Lewis dot structure for the ion, and propose a structure for the ion.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To draw the lewis dot structure and molecular structure of I3

Concept introduction:

A lewis dot structure is a diagram that show bonding between the atoms. A lewis dot structure is used to predict the geometry of the molecule.

A lewis dot structure is a two dimensional representation whereas a molecular structure is a three dimensional structure and many of the properties both chemical and physical are dictated by molecular structure.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

According to VSEPR theory, the geometry is predicted by the minimizing the repulsions between electron-pairs in the bonds and lone-pairs of electrons. The VSEPR theory is summarized in the given table as,

Electron-pairlone-pairElectron-pairgeometryMolecularshape20LinearLinear30TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanar21TrigonalplanarBent40TetrahedralTetrahedral31TetrahedralPyramidal22TetrahedralVshape50TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidal41TrigonalbipyramidalSeesaw32TrigonalbipyramidalTshape23TrigonalbipyramidalLinear60OctahedralOctahedral51OctahedralSquarepyramidal42OctahedralSquareplanar

Explanation

The iodine atom belongs to group 17 in the periodic table. The outer electronic configuration of iodine is 5s25p5. The total valence shell electron in I3 ion is seventeen.

The lewis dot structure of I3 ion is,

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To draw the lewis dot structure and molecular structure of BrCl2

Concept introduction:

A lewis dot structure is a diagram that show bonding between the atoms. A lewis dot structure is used to predict the geometry of the molecule.

A lewis dot structure is a two dimensional representation whereas a molecular structure is a three dimensional structure and many of the properties both chemical and physical are dictated by molecular structure.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

According to VSEPR theory, the geometry is predicted by the minimizing the repulsions between electron-pairs in the bonds and lone-pairs of electrons. The VSEPR theory is summarized in the given table as,

Electron-pairlone-pairElectron-pairgeometryMolecularshape20LinearLinear30TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanar21TrigonalplanarBent40TetrahedralTetrahedral31TetrahedralPyramidal22TetrahedralVshape50TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidal41TrigonalbipyramidalSeesaw32TrigonalbipyramidalTshape23TrigonalbipyramidalLinear60OctahedralOctahedral51OctahedralSquarepyramidal42OctahedralSquareplanar

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To draw the lewis dot structure and molecular structure of ClF2+

Concept introduction:

A lewis dot structure is a diagram that show bonding between the atoms. A lewis dot structure is used to predict the geometry of the molecule.

A lewis dot structure is a two dimensional representation whereas a molecular structure is a three dimensional structure and many of the properties both chemical and physical are dictated by molecular structure.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

According to VSEPR theory, the geometry is predicted by the minimizing the repulsions between electron-pairs in the bonds and lone-pairs of electrons. The VSEPR theory is summarized in the given table as,

Electron-pairlone-pairElectron-pairgeometryMolecularshape20LinearLinear30TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanar21TrigonalplanarBent40TetrahedralTetrahedral31TetrahedralPyramidal22TetrahedralVshape50TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidal41TrigonalbipyramidalSeesaw32TrigonalbipyramidalTshape23TrigonalbipyramidalLinear60OctahedralOctahedral51OctahedralSquarepyramidal42OctahedralSquareplanar

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To draw the lewis dot structure and molecular structure of I5

Concept introduction:

A lewis dot structure is a diagram that show bonding between the atoms. A lewis dot structure is used to predict the geometry of the molecule.

A lewis dot structure is a two dimensional representation whereas a molecular structure is a three dimensional structure and many of the properties both chemical and physical are dictated by molecular structure.

Molecular geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering only bond pair of electrons

Electron geometry is the shape of a molecule predicted by considering both bond electron pairs and lone pair of electrons.

According to VSEPR theory, the geometry is predicted by the minimizing the repulsions between electron-pairs in the bonds and lone-pairs of electrons. The VSEPR theory is summarized in the given table as,

Electron-pairlone-pairElectron-pairgeometryMolecularshape20LinearLinear30TrigonalplanarTrigonalplanar21TrigonalplanarBent40TetrahedralTetrahedral31TetrahedralPyramidal22TetrahedralVshape50TrigonalbipyramidalTrigonalbipyramidal41TrigonalbipyramidalSeesaw32TrigonalbipyramidalTshape23TrigonalbipyramidalLinear60OctahedralOctahedral51OctahedralSquarepyramidal42OctahedralSquareplanar

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