Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Consider the chemistries of the elements potassium, calcium, gallium, germanium, and arsenic.

(a) Write a balanced chemical equation depicting the reaction of each element with elemental chlorine.

(b) Describe the hording in each of the products of the reactions with chlorine as ionic or covalent.

(c) Draw Lewis electron dot structures for the products of the reactions of gallium and arsenic with chlorine. What are their electron-pair and geometries?


Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To write a balanced chemical equation of potassium, calcium, gallium, germanium and arsenic with elemental chlorine.

Concept introduction: Potassium is an alkali metal belongs to group 1 of periodic table. Calcium is an alkaline earth metal belongs to group 2 of the periodic table. Gallium belongs to group 11 of the periodic table. Germanium belongs to group 12 of the periodic table and arsenic belongs to group 13 of the periodic table.


The metals and non-metals form halides when react with halogen.

The potassium react with elemental chlorine to form compound KCl. The balanced chemical equation is written as,


The calcium react with elemental chlorine to form compound CaCl2. The balanced chemical equation is written as,


The gallium react with elemental chlorine to form compound GaCl3


Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: In the following compounds; KCl,CaCl2,GaCl3,GeCl4,AsCl3 the bonding in each compounds as an ionic and covalent is to be stated.

Concept introduction: An ionic bond is formed between metal and non-metal. The non-metals are electronegative in nature and metals are electropositive in nature. Therefore, non-metals get electrons very easily from metals and form ionic bond.

A covalent bond is formed between two non-metals that have approximately similar electronegativities. The non-metals can share electrons with each other to form a covalent bond.


Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: To draw lewis dot structure of GaCl3 and AsCl3 and its electron-pair and molecular geometry is to be stated.

Concept introduction:

A lewis dot structure is a diagram that show bonding between the atoms. A lewis dot structure is used to predict the geometry of the molecule.

According to VSEPR theory, the geometry is predicted by the minimizing the repulsions between electron-pairs in the bonds and lone-pairs of electrons. The VSEPR theory is written as,


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Chapter 21 Solutions

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Sect-21.11 P-2.4ACPSect-21.11 P-2.5ACPCh-21 P-1PSCh-21 P-2PSCh-21 P-3PSCh-21 P-4PSCh-21 P-5PSCh-21 P-6PSCh-21 P-7PSCh-21 P-8PSCh-21 P-9PSCh-21 P-10PSCh-21 P-11PSCh-21 P-12PSCh-21 P-13PSCh-21 P-14PSCh-21 P-15PSCh-21 P-16PSCh-21 P-17PSCh-21 P-18PSCh-21 P-19PSCh-21 P-20PSCh-21 P-21PSCh-21 P-22PSCh-21 P-23PSCh-21 P-24PSCh-21 P-25PSCh-21 P-26PSCh-21 P-27PSCh-21 P-28PSCh-21 P-29PSCh-21 P-30PSCh-21 P-31PSCh-21 P-32PSCh-21 P-33PSCh-21 P-34PSCh-21 P-35PSCh-21 P-36PSCh-21 P-37PSCh-21 P-38PSCh-21 P-39PSCh-21 P-40PSCh-21 P-41PSCh-21 P-42PSCh-21 P-43PSCh-21 P-44PSCh-21 P-45PSCh-21 P-46PSCh-21 P-47PSCh-21 P-48PSCh-21 P-49PSCh-21 P-50PSCh-21 P-51PSCh-21 P-52PSCh-21 P-53PSCh-21 P-54PSCh-21 P-55PSCh-21 P-56PSCh-21 P-57PSCh-21 P-58PSCh-21 P-59PSCh-21 P-60PSCh-21 P-61PSCh-21 P-62PSCh-21 P-63PSCh-21 P-64PSCh-21 P-65PSCh-21 P-66PSCh-21 P-67PSCh-21 P-68PSCh-21 P-69PSCh-21 P-70PSCh-21 P-71PSCh-21 P-72PSCh-21 P-73PSCh-21 P-74PSCh-21 P-75PSCh-21 P-76PSCh-21 P-77PSCh-21 P-78PSCh-21 P-79PSCh-21 P-80PSCh-21 P-81PSCh-21 P-82PSCh-21 P-83PSCh-21 P-84PSCh-21 P-85PSCh-21 P-86PSCh-21 P-87PSCh-21 P-88PSCh-21 P-89GQCh-21 P-90GQCh-21 P-91GQCh-21 P-92GQCh-21 P-93GQCh-21 P-94GQCh-21 P-95GQCh-21 P-96GQCh-21 P-97GQCh-21 P-98GQCh-21 P-99GQCh-21 P-100GQCh-21 P-101GQCh-21 P-102GQCh-21 P-103GQCh-21 P-105GQCh-21 P-106GQCh-21 P-107GQCh-21 P-108GQCh-21 P-110GQCh-21 P-111GQCh-21 P-112GQCh-21 P-113GQCh-21 P-114GQCh-21 P-115ILCh-21 P-116ILCh-21 P-117ILCh-21 P-118ILCh-21 P-119ILCh-21 P-120ILCh-21 P-121SCQCh-21 P-122SCQCh-21 P-123SCQCh-21 P-124SCQCh-21 P-125SCQCh-21 P-126SCQCh-21 P-127SCQCh-21 P-128SCQCh-21 P-129SCQCh-21 P-130SCQCh-21 P-131SCQ

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