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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The structure of nitric acid is illustrated on page 990.

(a) Why are the N—O bonds the same length, and why are both shorter than the N—OH bond length?

(b) Rationalize the bond angles in the molecule.

(c) What is the hybridization of the central N atom? Which orbitals overlap to form the N—O π bond?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

To predict why the NO bonds are shorter than the NOH bonds in nitric acid.

Concept introduction:

The formula for nitric acid is HNO3. It is present in the aqueous form. It is a very strong acid and on decomposition produces nitrogen and oxygen gas. The central element in the molecule is nitrogen. Nitrogen belongs to group 3A of the periodic table. The molecule is planar in shape.

Bond length is the distance between the nuclei in a bond and it is related to the sum of the covalent radii at the bonded atoms.

Explanation

Refer to page 990 of the textbook for the illustration of the structure of HNO3.

Thus, nitrogen is central element to which one NOH bond is attached and two NO bonds are attached.

These two NO bonds have double bond character due to resonance while no such resonance is there for the NOH bond. The two NO bonds in nitric acid are shorter than the typical bond length of NO bonds

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

To rationilize the bond angles in HNO3.

Concept introduction:

The formula for nitric acid is HNO3. It is present in the aqueous form. It is a very strong acid and on decomposition produces nitrogen and oxygen gas. The central element in the molecule is nitrogen. Nitrogen belongs to group 3A of the periodic table. The molecule is planar in shape.

Bond angle is the angle defined by lines joining the centres of two atoms to a third atom to which they are covalently bonded.

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationGeometryBondangleAX2spLinear180°AX3,AX2Bsp2Trigonalplanar120°AX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp3Tetrahedral109.5°AX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3dTrigonalbipyramidal120°,90°AX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d2Octahedral90°ACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The hybridization in the central nitrogen atom in nitric acid and the orbitals overlap to form NO π bond  should be determined

Concept introduction:

The formula for nitric acid is HNO3. It is present in the aqueous form. It is a very strong acid and on decomposition produces nitrogen and oxygen gas. The central element in the molecule is nitrogen. Nitrogen belongs to group 3A of the periodic table. The molecule is planar in shape.

Hybridization is the mixing of valence atomic orbitals to get equivalent hybridized orbitals that having similar characteristics and energy.

Geometry of different types of molecule with respect to the hybridizations are mentioned are mentioned below,

TypeofmoleculeHybridaizationAtomicorbitalsusedforhybridaizationGeometryAX2sp1s+1pLinearAX3,AX2Bsp21s+2pTrigonalplanarAX4,AX3B,AX2B2sp31s+3pTetrahedralAX5,AX4B,AX3B2,AX2B3sp3d1s+3p+1dTrigonalbipyramidalAX6,AX5B,AX4B2sp3d21s+3p+2dOctahedralACentralatomXAtomsbondedtoABNonbondingelectronpairsonA

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Chapter 21 Solutions

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Sect-21.11 P-2.4ACPSect-21.11 P-2.5ACPCh-21 P-1PSCh-21 P-2PSCh-21 P-3PSCh-21 P-4PSCh-21 P-5PSCh-21 P-6PSCh-21 P-7PSCh-21 P-8PSCh-21 P-9PSCh-21 P-10PSCh-21 P-11PSCh-21 P-12PSCh-21 P-13PSCh-21 P-14PSCh-21 P-15PSCh-21 P-16PSCh-21 P-17PSCh-21 P-18PSCh-21 P-19PSCh-21 P-20PSCh-21 P-21PSCh-21 P-22PSCh-21 P-23PSCh-21 P-24PSCh-21 P-25PSCh-21 P-26PSCh-21 P-27PSCh-21 P-28PSCh-21 P-29PSCh-21 P-30PSCh-21 P-31PSCh-21 P-32PSCh-21 P-33PSCh-21 P-34PSCh-21 P-35PSCh-21 P-36PSCh-21 P-37PSCh-21 P-38PSCh-21 P-39PSCh-21 P-40PSCh-21 P-41PSCh-21 P-42PSCh-21 P-43PSCh-21 P-44PSCh-21 P-45PSCh-21 P-46PSCh-21 P-47PSCh-21 P-48PSCh-21 P-49PSCh-21 P-50PSCh-21 P-51PSCh-21 P-52PSCh-21 P-53PSCh-21 P-54PSCh-21 P-55PSCh-21 P-56PSCh-21 P-57PSCh-21 P-58PSCh-21 P-59PSCh-21 P-60PSCh-21 P-61PSCh-21 P-62PSCh-21 P-63PSCh-21 P-64PSCh-21 P-65PSCh-21 P-66PSCh-21 P-67PSCh-21 P-68PSCh-21 P-69PSCh-21 P-70PSCh-21 P-71PSCh-21 P-72PSCh-21 P-73PSCh-21 P-74PSCh-21 P-75PSCh-21 P-76PSCh-21 P-77PSCh-21 P-78PSCh-21 P-79PSCh-21 P-80PSCh-21 P-81PSCh-21 P-82PSCh-21 P-83PSCh-21 P-84PSCh-21 P-85PSCh-21 P-86PSCh-21 P-87PSCh-21 P-88PSCh-21 P-89GQCh-21 P-90GQCh-21 P-91GQCh-21 P-92GQCh-21 P-93GQCh-21 P-94GQCh-21 P-95GQCh-21 P-96GQCh-21 P-97GQCh-21 P-98GQCh-21 P-99GQCh-21 P-100GQCh-21 P-101GQCh-21 P-102GQCh-21 P-103GQCh-21 P-105GQCh-21 P-106GQCh-21 P-107GQCh-21 P-108GQCh-21 P-110GQCh-21 P-111GQCh-21 P-112GQCh-21 P-113GQCh-21 P-114GQCh-21 P-115ILCh-21 P-116ILCh-21 P-117ILCh-21 P-118ILCh-21 P-119ILCh-21 P-120ILCh-21 P-121SCQCh-21 P-122SCQCh-21 P-123SCQCh-21 P-124SCQCh-21 P-125SCQCh-21 P-126SCQCh-21 P-127SCQCh-21 P-128SCQCh-21 P-129SCQCh-21 P-130SCQCh-21 P-131SCQ

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