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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Write balanced chemical dilutions for the reaction of hydrogen gas with oxygen, chlorine, and nitrogen.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The balanced chemical equation should be written for the reaction of hydrogen gas with oxygen.

Concept introduction: The reaction of elements with hydrogen produces either ionic metal hydrides or molecular compounds.  The reaction of hydrogen with metals produces ionic metal hydrides. The electronegativity of hydrogen is more than metals and hence, metals bear positive charge and hydrogen has a negative charge. Thus, the oxidation number of hydrogen in ionic metal hydrides is 1. The reaction of non-metals with hydrogen produces molecular compounds. In general, non-metals are more electronegative than hydrogen and hence, hydrogen bears positive charge and non-metals are negatively charged in molecular compounds. Thus, the oxidation number of hydrogen in molecular compounds is +1.

The oxidation number of metals in ionic hydrides and non-metals in molecular compounds are according to the group number and valence electron configuration of these elements.

So, hydrogen reacts with both metals and non-metals to produce hydrides of corresponding elements. However, the elements belonging to the noble gas family have very low chemical reactivity and therefore do not combine with hydrogen.

Explanation

Oxygen belongs to the group 6A of the periodic table. The electronic configuration of Oxygen is: 1s22s22p4

Oxygen has four valence electrons in the outermost shell and requires two electrons to complete its octet. Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen and hence, hydrogen bears a positive charge. The charge on hydrogen is +1 and the charge on oxygen 2. Thus, the compound formed is H2O.

The stoichiometric coefficients are multiplied with species to have an equal number of atoms on both the reactant and product side, for a balanced chemical equation

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The balanced chemical equation should be written for the reaction of hydrogen gas with chlorine.

Concept introduction: The reaction of elements with hydrogen produces either ionic metal hydrides or molecular compounds.  The reaction of hydrogen with metals produces ionic metal hydrides. The electronegativity of hydrogen is more than metals and hence, metals bear positive charge and hydrogen has a negative charge. Thus, the oxidation number of hydrogen in ionic metal hydrides is 1. The reaction of non-metals with hydrogen produces molecular compounds. In general, non-metals are more electronegative than hydrogen and hence, hydrogen bears positive charge and non-metals are negatively charged in molecular compounds. Thus, the oxidation number of hydrogen in molecular compounds is +1.

The oxidation number of metals in ionic hydrides and non-metals in molecular compounds are according to the group number and valence electron configuration of these elements.

So, hydrogen reacts with both metals and non-metals to produce hydrides of corresponding elements. However, the elements belonging to the noble gas family have very low chemical reactivity and therefore do not combine with hydrogen.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The balanced chemical equation should be written for the reaction of hydrogen gas with nitrogen.

Concept introduction: The reaction of elements with hydrogen produces either ionic metal hydrides or molecular compounds.  The reaction of hydrogen with metals produces ionic metal hydrides. The electronegativity of hydrogen is more than metals and hence, metals bear positive charge and hydrogen has a negative charge. Thus, the oxidation number of hydrogen in ionic metal hydrides is 1. The reaction of non-metals with hydrogen produces molecular compounds. In general, non-metals are more electronegative than hydrogen and hence, hydrogen bears positive charge and non-metals are negatively charged in molecular compounds. Thus, the oxidation number of hydrogen in molecular compounds is +1.

The oxidation number of metals in ionic hydrides and non-metals in molecular compounds are according to the group number and valence electron configuration of these elements.

So, hydrogen reacts with both metals and non-metals to produce hydrides of corresponding elements. However, the elements belonging to the noble gas family have very low chemical reactivity and therefore do not combine with hydrogen.

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Chapter 21 Solutions

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Sect-21.11 P-2.4ACPSect-21.11 P-2.5ACPCh-21 P-1PSCh-21 P-2PSCh-21 P-3PSCh-21 P-4PSCh-21 P-5PSCh-21 P-6PSCh-21 P-7PSCh-21 P-8PSCh-21 P-9PSCh-21 P-10PSCh-21 P-11PSCh-21 P-12PSCh-21 P-13PSCh-21 P-14PSCh-21 P-15PSCh-21 P-16PSCh-21 P-17PSCh-21 P-18PSCh-21 P-19PSCh-21 P-20PSCh-21 P-21PSCh-21 P-22PSCh-21 P-23PSCh-21 P-24PSCh-21 P-25PSCh-21 P-26PSCh-21 P-27PSCh-21 P-28PSCh-21 P-29PSCh-21 P-30PSCh-21 P-31PSCh-21 P-32PSCh-21 P-33PSCh-21 P-34PSCh-21 P-35PSCh-21 P-36PSCh-21 P-37PSCh-21 P-38PSCh-21 P-39PSCh-21 P-40PSCh-21 P-41PSCh-21 P-42PSCh-21 P-43PSCh-21 P-44PSCh-21 P-45PSCh-21 P-46PSCh-21 P-47PSCh-21 P-48PSCh-21 P-49PSCh-21 P-50PSCh-21 P-51PSCh-21 P-52PSCh-21 P-53PSCh-21 P-54PSCh-21 P-55PSCh-21 P-56PSCh-21 P-57PSCh-21 P-58PSCh-21 P-59PSCh-21 P-60PSCh-21 P-61PSCh-21 P-62PSCh-21 P-63PSCh-21 P-64PSCh-21 P-65PSCh-21 P-66PSCh-21 P-67PSCh-21 P-68PSCh-21 P-69PSCh-21 P-70PSCh-21 P-71PSCh-21 P-72PSCh-21 P-73PSCh-21 P-74PSCh-21 P-75PSCh-21 P-76PSCh-21 P-77PSCh-21 P-78PSCh-21 P-79PSCh-21 P-80PSCh-21 P-81PSCh-21 P-82PSCh-21 P-83PSCh-21 P-84PSCh-21 P-85PSCh-21 P-86PSCh-21 P-87PSCh-21 P-88PSCh-21 P-89GQCh-21 P-90GQCh-21 P-91GQCh-21 P-92GQCh-21 P-93GQCh-21 P-94GQCh-21 P-95GQCh-21 P-96GQCh-21 P-97GQCh-21 P-98GQCh-21 P-99GQCh-21 P-100GQCh-21 P-101GQCh-21 P-102GQCh-21 P-103GQCh-21 P-105GQCh-21 P-106GQCh-21 P-107GQCh-21 P-108GQCh-21 P-110GQCh-21 P-111GQCh-21 P-112GQCh-21 P-113GQCh-21 P-114GQCh-21 P-115ILCh-21 P-116ILCh-21 P-117ILCh-21 P-118ILCh-21 P-119ILCh-21 P-120ILCh-21 P-121SCQCh-21 P-122SCQCh-21 P-123SCQCh-21 P-124SCQCh-21 P-125SCQCh-21 P-126SCQCh-21 P-127SCQCh-21 P-128SCQCh-21 P-129SCQCh-21 P-130SCQCh-21 P-131SCQ

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