   Chapter 21, Problem 31PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

The electrolysis of aqueous NaCl gives NaOH, Cl2, and H2. (a) Write a balanced equation for the process. (b) In the United States, 1.19 × 1010 kg of NaOH and 1.14 × 1010 kg of Cl2 were produced in a recent year. Does the ratio of masses of NaOH and Cl2 produced agree with the ratio of masses expected from the balanced equation? If not, what does this tell you about the way in which NaOH and Cl2 are actually produced? Is the electrolysis of aqueous NaCl the only source of these chemicals?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The balanced chemical equation of electrolysis of NaCl has to be written.

Concept introduction:

• Balanced chemical equation of a reaction is written according to law of conservation of mass.
• Stoichiometry of a chemical reaction is the relation between reactants and products of the reaction and it is represented by the coefficients used for the reactants and products involved in the chemical equation.
Explanation

The reaction of NaCl with water is an important industrial method to produce chlorine and sodium hydroxide. The industry is named as a chloro-alkali industry. The products obtained from the electrolysis are sodium hydroxide and chlorine. The balanced chemical equation for the electrolysis of NaCl to form chlorine and sodium hydroxide is:

2NaCl(aq)

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The ratio of the product NaOH and Cl2 produced in the given reaction should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Sodium chloride is also known as brine. The electrolysis of sodium chloride is an industrial process. The products obtained from the electrolysis are sodium hydroxide and chlorine. It is one of the most important methods to produce chlorine.

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