   Chapter 21, Problem 48PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

(a) Write a balanced equation for the reaction of Al and H2O(ℓ) to produce H2 and Al2O3. (a) Using thermodynamic data in Appendix L, calculate ΔrH°, ΔrS°, and ΔrG° for this reaction. Do these data indicate that the reaction should favor the products at equilibrium? (b) Why is aluminum metal unaffected by water?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The balanced chemical equation for the reaction of aluminium and water has to be given.

Concept introduction:

• Balanced chemical equation of a reaction is written according to law of conservation of mass.
• Stoichiometry of a chemical reaction is the relation between reactants and products of the reaction and it is represented by the coefficients used for the reactants and products involved in the chemical equation.
Explanation

Aluminium on reaction with water produces the corresponding oxide of aluminium and hydrogen gas. The equation is said to be a balanced chemical equation if the number of atoms on both the product side and the reactant side are same. Thus, the balanced chemical equation is,

2Al(s)+3H2

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The standard free energy change, standard enthalpy change and standard entropy change for the given reaction has to be given.

Concept introduction:

The Gibbs free energy or the free energy change is a thermodynamic quantity represented by ΔG. It is related to entropy and entropy by the following expression,

ΔG=ΔHTΔS

Here, ΔH is the change in enthalpy and ΔS is the change in entropy.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Aluminum metal is unaffected by water. The reason behind this has to be explained.

Concept introduction:

Aluminium has a chemical property that, it reacts with oxygen to form an oxide. The aluminium oxide is strong and it is unaffected by water.

The reaction occurred in this process is,

Al+2OAlO2

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