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Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097

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Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097
Textbook Problem

Draw all the structural isomers for C8H18 that have the following root name (longest carbon chain). Name the structural isomers.

a. heptanes

b. butane

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The structural isomers of C8H18 that have the root name heptane and butane are to be drawn and their names are to be stated..

Concept introduction: Rules given by IUPAC should be followed to name an organic compound. Any organic compound has only one name that denotes that compound. The root word determines the number of carbons while counting the longest carbon chain. If more than one substituent is present, prefixes like di, tri, tetra, etc. are used and different substituents are written in alphabetical order.

Explanation

Explanation

To determine: The structural isomers of C8H18 that have the root name heptane and butane.

Heptane:

The structural isomer is given below and its name is 3 -methylheptane.

The structure of the isomer is,

Figure 1

The general formula of alkanes is CnH2n . The given formula C8H18 satisfy the general formula of alkanes. Eight carbons means the the root word is “octane”. Thus the given formula signifies the organic compound octane.

Octane has eight carbons and 18 hydrogens. 3 -methylheptane also have eight carbons and 18 hydrogens, but its structure is different from octane. Therefore, 3 -methylheptane is a structural isomer of C8H18 .

The isomer has seven carbons in the parent chain. Therefore the root word “heptane” is used. Methyl group is attached to third carbon, thus the name of the isomer is 3 -methylheptane.

The structural isomer is given below and its name is 2 -methylheptane.

The structure of the isomer is,

Figure 2

The general formula of alkanes is CnH2n . The given formula C8H18 satisfy the general formula of alkanes. Eight carbons means the the root word is “octane”. Thus the given formula signifies the organic compound octane.

Octane has eight carbons and 18 hydrogens. 2 -methylheptane also have eight carbons and 18 hydrogens, but its structure is different from octane. Therefore, 2 -methylheptane is a structural isomer of C8H18 .

The isomer has seven carbons in the parent chain. Therefore the root word “heptane” is used. Methyl group is attached to second carbon, thus the name of the isomer is 2 -methylheptane.

The structural isomer is given below and its name is 4 -methylheptane.

The structure of the given isomer is,

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Ch-22 P-11RQCh-22 P-12RQCh-22 P-1QCh-22 P-2QCh-22 P-3QCh-22 P-4QCh-22 P-5QCh-22 P-6QCh-22 P-7QCh-22 P-8QCh-22 P-9QCh-22 P-10QCh-22 P-11QCh-22 P-12QCh-22 P-13ECh-22 P-14ECh-22 P-15ECh-22 P-16ECh-22 P-17ECh-22 P-18ECh-22 P-19ECh-22 P-20ECh-22 P-21ECh-22 P-22ECh-22 P-23ECh-22 P-24ECh-22 P-25ECh-22 P-26ECh-22 P-27ECh-22 P-28ECh-22 P-29ECh-22 P-30ECh-22 P-31ECh-22 P-32ECh-22 P-33ECh-22 P-34ECh-22 P-35ECh-22 P-36ECh-22 P-37ECh-22 P-38ECh-22 P-39ECh-22 P-40ECh-22 P-41ECh-22 P-42ECh-22 P-43ECh-22 P-44ECh-22 P-45ECh-22 P-46ECh-22 P-47ECh-22 P-48ECh-22 P-49ECh-22 P-50ECh-22 P-51ECh-22 P-52ECh-22 P-53ECh-22 P-54ECh-22 P-55ECh-22 P-56ECh-22 P-57ECh-22 P-58ECh-22 P-59ECh-22 P-60ECh-22 P-61ECh-22 P-62ECh-22 P-63ECh-22 P-64ECh-22 P-65ECh-22 P-66ECh-22 P-67ECh-22 P-68ECh-22 P-69ECh-22 P-70ECh-22 P-71ECh-22 P-72ECh-22 P-73ECh-22 P-74ECh-22 P-75ECh-22 P-76ECh-22 P-77ECh-22 P-78ECh-22 P-79ECh-22 P-80ECh-22 P-81ECh-22 P-82ECh-22 P-83ECh-22 P-84ECh-22 P-85ECh-22 P-86ECh-22 P-87ECh-22 P-88ECh-22 P-89ECh-22 P-90ECh-22 P-91ECh-22 P-92ECh-22 P-93ECh-22 P-94ECh-22 P-95ECh-22 P-96ECh-22 P-97ECh-22 P-98ECh-22 P-99ECh-22 P-100ECh-22 P-101ECh-22 P-102ECh-22 P-103ECh-22 P-104ECh-22 P-105ECh-22 P-106ECh-22 P-107ECh-22 P-108ECh-22 P-109ECh-22 P-110ECh-22 P-111AECh-22 P-112AECh-22 P-113AECh-22 P-114AECh-22 P-115AECh-22 P-116AECh-22 P-117AECh-22 P-118AECh-22 P-119AECh-22 P-120AECh-22 P-121AECh-22 P-122AECh-22 P-123AECh-22 P-124AECh-22 P-125AECh-22 P-126AECh-22 P-127AECh-22 P-128AECh-22 P-129AECh-22 P-130AECh-22 P-131AECh-22 P-132AECh-22 P-133AECh-22 P-134AECh-22 P-135AECh-22 P-136AECh-22 P-137CWPCh-22 P-138CWPCh-22 P-139CWPCh-22 P-140CWPCh-22 P-141CWPCh-22 P-142CWPCh-22 P-143CWPCh-22 P-144CWPCh-22 P-145CPCh-22 P-146CPCh-22 P-147CPCh-22 P-148CPCh-22 P-149CPCh-22 P-150CPCh-22 P-151CPCh-22 P-152CPCh-22 P-153CPCh-22 P-154CPCh-22 P-155CPCh-22 P-156CPCh-22 P-157CPCh-22 P-158CPCh-22 P-159IPCh-22 P-160IPCh-22 P-161MPCh-22 P-162MP

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