Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Early in the 20th century, coordination compounds sometimes were given names based on their colors. Two compounds with the formula CoCl3 · 4 NH3 were named praseo-cobalt chloride (praseo = green) and violio-cobalt chloride (violet color). We now know that these compounds are octahedral cobalt complexes and that they are cis and trans isomers. Draw the structures of these two compounds, and name them using systematic nomenclature.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: For the given formula the name of the coordination compound and the optical isomers has to be determined.

Concept introduction: The transition metal atoms have tendency to form complex compounds that are linked to the certain neutral or ionic species which leads to the formation of coordination compounds. There exists a large number of coordination compounds that have a large number of applications in the chemical industry as well as in daily life.

Coordination compounds: The compounds having coordination covalent bonds which form when metal ions react with polar molecules or anions.

Ligands: The ions or molecules that forms coordination covalent bond with metal ions in a coordination compound. Ligands should have minimum one lone pair of electron, where it donates two electrons to the metal. Metal atom accepts the electron pair from a ligand forming a coordination bond.

Mono dentate ligand is ligands which donate only one pair of electrons to form bond with metal. It only makes one bond with metal. Polydentate ligand forms two or more coordination bond with metal ions to form a complex.

Oxidation number: The total number of electrons in an atom after losing or gaining electrons to make a bond with another atom. It indicates the charge of an ion.

The rule to name a coordination complex is,

  1. 1. The cation is named before the anion.
  2. 2. Within a complex ion, the Ligands are arranged in an alphabetical order followed by the metal ion name. The anionic Ligand should ends with a letter –o, the neutral Ligand are called by the molecules (some common name for some exception).
  3. 3. When more Ligands are present, Greek prefixes like di, tri, tetra, penta, and hexa to specify their number.
  4. 4. The oxidation number of the metal is represented in roman numerals immediately following the metal ion name.
  5. 5. If the complex ion is an anion, the metal name should end with –ate.

Spectro chemical series : The list of ligands arranged in an ascending order of (Δ)(the splitting of d-orbitals in presence of various ligands).

I-<Br-<SCN-<Cl-<S2-<F-<OH-<O2-<H2O<NCS-<edta4-<NH3<  en<NO2-<CN-<COweak-fieldincreasing(Δ)strong-fieldligandsligands

Isomerism: Two chemical compounds are said to be isomers if they have same number and kind of atoms but different only in their orientation that is structural arrangements.

There are different types of isomerism in which geometric is of one type where the rotation around the atom is restricted like in cis-trans configuration. This is also refereed as cis-trans isomerism.

Oxidation number: It is the number that defines the number of electrons that are gained or lost by the chemical substance.


The formula for the given compound is CoCl3.4NH3. Examining the formula clearly says that the central metal is d block element which is cobalt here then, the 4NH3and2Cl serves as the ligands.

The oxidation state for Co in given complex is +3 since given complex has 4NH3 and 2Cl where the charge of NH3= 0since it is neutral ligand andforCl = -1 therefore the oxidation number is determined as follows,

CoCl3.4NH3[Co(NH3)4Cl2]+ClLet x be charge of Cox+(4×0)+(2×1)= +1x2= +1x=+3Oxidation state of Co is +3.

First the ligands should be arranged in alphabetical order, followed by the metal name along with the oxidation number

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