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Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097
Textbook Problem

Distinguish between substitution and addition reactions. Give an example of each type of reaction. Alkanes and aromatics are fairly stable compounds. To make them react, a special catalyst must be present. What catalyst must be present when reacting Cl2 with an alkane or with benzene? Adding Cl2 to an alkene or alkyne does not require a special catalyst. Why are alkenes and alkynes more reactive than alkanes and aromatic compounds? All organic compounds can be combusted. What is the other reactant in a combustion reaction, and what are the products, assuming the organic compound contains only C, H, and perhaps O?

The following are some other organic reactions covered in Section 21-4. Give an example to illustrate each type of reaction.

a. Adding H2O to an alkene (in the presence of H+) yields an alcohol.

b. Primary alcohols are oxidized to aldehydes, which can be further oxidized to carboxylic acids.

c. Secondary alcohols are oxidized to ketones.

d. Reacting an alcohol with a carboxylic acid (in the presence of H+) produces an ester.

(I)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The answers of various questions based upon reactions in aliphatic and aromatic compounds are to be stated.

Concept introduction: The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are known as hydrocarbons. They can be further classified as saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bond between atoms while unsaturated hydrocarbons contains double or triple bonds between the atoms of the molecule.

To determine: The answers of various questions based upon reactions in aliphatic and aromatic compounds.

Explanation

Explanation

The substitution and addition reactions are distinguished.

When a particular atom or functional group in a compound is replaced by another group, then the reaction is known as substitution reaction.

Its example is when chloroethane reacts with a base, the hydroxide ion replaces chlorine as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1

When two molecules combine together to form a larger compound, then the reaction is known as addition reaction.

When ethene reacts with bromine,1,2-dibromoethane forms as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2

Presence of lewis acid or sunlight is necessary for reaction between Cl2 and an alkane or benzene.

Alkanes and aromatic compounds are fairly stable. A special catalyst is required to make them react. A lewis acid or sunlight must be present when reacting Cl2 with an alkane or with benzene

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The answers of various questions based upon reactions in aliphatic and aromatic compounds are to be stated.

Concept introduction: The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are known as hydrocarbons. They can be further classified as saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bond between atoms while unsaturated hydrocarbons contains double or triple bonds between the atoms of the molecule.

To determine: An example that illustrate the formation alcohol by addition of water to an alkene.

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The answers of various questions based upon reactions in aliphatic and aromatic compounds are to be stated.

Concept introduction: The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are known as hydrocarbons. They can be further classified as saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bond between atoms while unsaturated hydrocarbons contains double or triple bonds between the atoms of the molecule.

To determine: An example that illustrates the oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes and which can be further oxidized to carboxylic acid.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The answers of various questions based upon reactions in aliphatic and aromatic compounds are to be stated.

Concept introduction: The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are known as hydrocarbons. They can be further classified as saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bond between atoms while unsaturated hydrocarbons contains double or triple bonds between the atoms of the molecule.

To determine: An example that illustrates the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The answers of various questions based upon reactions in aliphatic and aromatic compounds are to be stated.

Concept introduction: The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are known as hydrocarbons. They can be further classified as saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bond between atoms while unsaturated hydrocarbons contains double or triple bonds between the atoms of the molecule.

To determine: An example illustrating the reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid.

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Chapter 22 Solutions

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Ch-22 P-11RQCh-22 P-12RQCh-22 P-1QCh-22 P-2QCh-22 P-3QCh-22 P-4QCh-22 P-5QCh-22 P-6QCh-22 P-7QCh-22 P-8QCh-22 P-9QCh-22 P-10QCh-22 P-11QCh-22 P-12QCh-22 P-13ECh-22 P-14ECh-22 P-15ECh-22 P-16ECh-22 P-17ECh-22 P-18ECh-22 P-19ECh-22 P-20ECh-22 P-21ECh-22 P-22ECh-22 P-23ECh-22 P-24ECh-22 P-25ECh-22 P-26ECh-22 P-27ECh-22 P-28ECh-22 P-29ECh-22 P-30ECh-22 P-31ECh-22 P-32ECh-22 P-33ECh-22 P-34ECh-22 P-35ECh-22 P-36ECh-22 P-37ECh-22 P-38ECh-22 P-39ECh-22 P-40ECh-22 P-41ECh-22 P-42ECh-22 P-43ECh-22 P-44ECh-22 P-45ECh-22 P-46ECh-22 P-47ECh-22 P-48ECh-22 P-49ECh-22 P-50ECh-22 P-51ECh-22 P-52ECh-22 P-53ECh-22 P-54ECh-22 P-55ECh-22 P-56ECh-22 P-57ECh-22 P-58ECh-22 P-59ECh-22 P-60ECh-22 P-61ECh-22 P-62ECh-22 P-63ECh-22 P-64ECh-22 P-65ECh-22 P-66ECh-22 P-67ECh-22 P-68ECh-22 P-69ECh-22 P-70ECh-22 P-71ECh-22 P-72ECh-22 P-73ECh-22 P-74ECh-22 P-75ECh-22 P-76ECh-22 P-77ECh-22 P-78ECh-22 P-79ECh-22 P-80ECh-22 P-81ECh-22 P-82ECh-22 P-83ECh-22 P-84ECh-22 P-85ECh-22 P-86ECh-22 P-87ECh-22 P-88ECh-22 P-89ECh-22 P-90ECh-22 P-91ECh-22 P-92ECh-22 P-93ECh-22 P-94ECh-22 P-95ECh-22 P-96ECh-22 P-97ECh-22 P-98ECh-22 P-99ECh-22 P-100ECh-22 P-101ECh-22 P-102ECh-22 P-103ECh-22 P-104ECh-22 P-105ECh-22 P-106ECh-22 P-107ECh-22 P-108ECh-22 P-109ECh-22 P-110ECh-22 P-111AECh-22 P-112AECh-22 P-113AECh-22 P-114AECh-22 P-115AECh-22 P-116AECh-22 P-117AECh-22 P-118AECh-22 P-119AECh-22 P-120AECh-22 P-121AECh-22 P-122AECh-22 P-123AECh-22 P-124AECh-22 P-125AECh-22 P-126AECh-22 P-127AECh-22 P-128AECh-22 P-129AECh-22 P-130AECh-22 P-131AECh-22 P-132AECh-22 P-133AECh-22 P-134AECh-22 P-135AECh-22 P-136AECh-22 P-137CWPCh-22 P-138CWPCh-22 P-139CWPCh-22 P-140CWPCh-22 P-141CWPCh-22 P-142CWPCh-22 P-143CWPCh-22 P-144CWPCh-22 P-145CPCh-22 P-146CPCh-22 P-147CPCh-22 P-148CPCh-22 P-149CPCh-22 P-150CPCh-22 P-151CPCh-22 P-152CPCh-22 P-153CPCh-22 P-154CPCh-22 P-155CPCh-22 P-156CPCh-22 P-157CPCh-22 P-158CPCh-22 P-159IPCh-22 P-160IPCh-22 P-161MPCh-22 P-162MP

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