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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

For each of the following complex ions, give the oxidation number of the metal, depict possible low- and high-spin configurations, give the number of unpaired electrons in each configuration, and tell whether each is paramagnetic or diamagnetic.

(a) [Ru(H2O)6]2+

(b) [Ni(NH3)6]2+

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The oxidation number, the spin (low or high) configuration, the numbers of unpaired electrons and magnetic properties of the given complexes has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Oxidation number of a central atom in a complex is defined as the charge it would carry if all the ligands are removed along with the electron pairs that are shared with the central atom

Low spin complex are those with minimum number of unpaired spins and occurs with stronger field ligands (CN,en)

High spin complex are those with maximum number of unpaired spins and occurs with weaker field ligands (H2O,Cl)

The strong-field ligands results in pairing of electrons present in the complex and leads to diamagnetic species , while the low-field ligand do not have tendency to pair up the electrons therefore forms paramagnetic species.

The electron configuration tells us in which orbitals the electrons for an element are located.

Metal orbitals contain unpaired electrons is paramagnetic and with no unpaired electrons, is diamagnetic.

Explanation

In [Ru(H2O)6]2+ complex,

    

The neutral ruthenium has 3d64s2 configuration, so Ru2+ has a configuration of d6.

[Ru(H2O)6]2+ is a octahedral complex. So, the d orbital is split into two sets of orbitals, in which dxy,dxzanddyz has lower energy and dx2y2anddz2 has higher energy

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The oxidation number, the spin (low or high) configuration, the numbers of unpaired electrons and magnetic properties of the given complexes has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Oxidation number of a central atom in a complex is defined as the charge it would carry if all the ligands are removed along with the electron pairs that are shared with the central atom

Low spin complex are those with minimum number of unpaired spins and occurs with stronger field ligands (CN,en)

High spin complex are those with maximum number of unpaired spins and occurs with weaker field ligands (H2O,Cl)

The strong-field ligands results in pairing of electrons present in the complex and leads to diamagnetic species , while the low-field ligand do not have tendency to pair up the electrons therefore forms paramagnetic species.

The electron configuration tells us in which orbitals the electrons for an element are located.

Metal orbitals contain unpaired electrons is paramagnetic and with no unpaired electrons, is diamagnetic.

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