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Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079
Textbook Problem

Assign an IUPAC name to each of the following polyhydroxy alcohols.

Chapter 3, Problem 3.16EP, Assign an IUPAC name to each of the following polyhydroxy alcohols.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The IUPAC name for the given polyhydroxy alcohol has to be assigned.

Concept Introduction:

IUPAC rules for naming alcohols that contain single hydroxyl group:

  • Longest carbon chain has to be identified that contains hydroxyl group also. The chain name is obtained by replacing the letter “-e” in alkane with “-ol”.
  • The numbering has to be given so that the hydroxyl group gets the least numbering.
  • Name and location of any other substituent present in the chain has to be identified.
  • If in a ring the hydroxyl group is present, then that carbon is numbered 1 and the numbering then proceeds counterclockwise or clockwise in a way that substituents present if any gets the least numbering.
  • Hydroxyl group as a substituent in a molecule is named as hydroxy group rather than hydroxyl group.

IUPAC rules for naming alcohols that contain more than one hydroxyl group:

  • The same rules said above is followed but the prefix di-, tri-, tetra etc is added corresponding to the number of hydroxyl groups that is present.
Explanation

Given structure is,

The longest continuous carbon chain with the hydroxyl group is found to be four carbon chain. Therefore, the parent alkane is butane. As two hydroxyl groups are present the name of the alcohol, the suffix –diol has to be added to the alkane name and this can be given as butanediol.

The numbering has to be given so that the hydroxyl group gets the least numbering...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The IUPAC name for the given polyhydroxy alcohol has to be assigned.

Concept Introduction:

IUPAC rules for naming alcohols that contain single hydroxyl group:

  • Longest carbon chain has to be identified that contains hydroxyl group also. The chain name is obtained by replacing the letter “-e” in alkane with “-ol”.
  • The numbering has to be given so that the hydroxyl group gets the least numbering.
  • Name and location of any other substituent present in the chain has to be identified.
  • If in a ring the hydroxyl group is present, then that carbon is numbered 1 and the numbering then proceeds counterclockwise or clockwise in a way that substituents present if any gets the least numbering.
  • Hydroxyl group as a substituent in a molecule is named as hydroxy group rather than hydroxyl group.

IUPAC rules for naming alcohols that contain more than one hydroxyl group:

  • The same rules said above is followed but the prefix di-, tri-, tetra etc is added corresponding to the number of hydroxyl groups that is present.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The IUPAC name for the given polyhydroxy alcohol has to be assigned.

Concept Introduction:

IUPAC rules for naming alcohols that contain single hydroxyl group:

  • Longest carbon chain has to be identified that contains hydroxyl group also. The chain name is obtained by replacing the letter “-e” in alkane with “-ol”.
  • The numbering has to be given so that the hydroxyl group gets the least numbering.
  • Name and location of any other substituent present in the chain has to be identified.
  • If in a ring the hydroxyl group is present, then that carbon is numbered 1 and the numbering then proceeds counterclockwise or clockwise in a way that substituents present if any gets the least numbering.
  • Hydroxyl group as a substituent in a molecule is named as hydroxy group rather than hydroxyl group.

IUPAC rules for naming alcohols that contain more than one hydroxyl group:

  • The same rules said above is followed but the prefix di-, tri-, tetra etc is added corresponding to the number of hydroxyl groups that is present.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The IUPAC name for the given polyhydroxy alcohol has to be assigned.

Concept Introduction:

IUPAC rules for naming alcohols that contain single hydroxyl group:

  • Longest carbon chain has to be identified that contains hydroxyl group also. The chain name is obtained by replacing the letter “-e” in alkane with “-ol”.
  • The numbering has to be given so that the hydroxyl group gets the least numbering.
  • Name and location of any other substituent present in the chain has to be identified.
  • If in a ring the hydroxyl group is present, then that carbon is numbered 1 and the numbering then proceeds counterclockwise or clockwise in a way that substituents present if any gets the least numbering.
  • Hydroxyl group as a substituent in a molecule is named as hydroxy group rather than hydroxyl group.

IUPAC rules for naming alcohols that contain more than one hydroxyl group:

  • The same rules said above is followed but the prefix di-, tri-, tetra etc is added corresponding to the number of hydroxyl groups that is present.

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