   Chapter 22, Problem 40PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Which of the following statements about ligand field theory are correct?(a) Ligands donate an electron pair to a metal ion.(b) Each ligand donates an electron pair to the metal.(c) Coordination of the ligands to a metal causes splitting of the d electron energy’ levels.(d) Bonding of ligands to a metal results in paramagnetism.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The correct statements regarding the ligand field theory has to be determined from the given option.

Concept introduction:

Ligands: The ions or molecules that forms coordination covalent bond with metal ions in a coordination compound.

Ligand field theory: It is used to explain the bonding between metal and ligand in a coordination complex.

Ligand field theory is explained in terms of electrostatic interaction of between metal ion and ligands.

If the complex has minimum one unpaired electron, then they are paramagnetic and are attracted towards the magnetic field. If all the electrons are paired in a complex, then they are diamagnetic and are repelled from the magnetic field.

Explanation

Reason for correct option:

Examine the options (b) and (c) as follows,

The option (b) explains that ligands are the ions or molecules that form coordination covalent bond with metal ions in a coordination compound. Ligands should have minimum one lone pair of electron, where it donates two electrons to the metal. Metal atom accepts the electron pair from a ligand forming a coordination bond. To form a complex, each of the ligand should contribute one electron pair to form bond with the metal.

The option (c) explains that Ligand field theory is used to explain the bonding between metal and ligand in a coordination complex. The bonding between ligand and metal is caused by the electrostatic attraction takes place between a positively charges metal and a polar or negatively charged molecule. The d orbitals of metal ion or atom in a complex have different energies because of the repulsion force occurs between the electrons in the d orbital of metals and electron pair in the ligand which increases the orbital energy.

Hence the correct options for the statements regarding ligand field theory are option b and c.

Reasons for incorrect options:

Examine the options other than the correct ones as follows,

The option (a) explains that ligands are the ions or molecules that form coordination covalent bond with metal ions in a coordination compound...

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