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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

9th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781133949640
Chapter 9.2, Problem 2RC
Textbook Problem
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Which of the following is incorrect?

  • (a) The hybridization of N in NH4+ is sp3.
  • (b) The hybridization of S in SO42− is sp3.
  • (c) The hybridization of N in NO2 is sp3
  • (d) The hybridization of O in H3O+ is sp3.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The incorrect hybridization should be identified given the statement of four molecules and its ions.

Concept Introduction:

Hybridization:  When the atomic orbitals mix to form new atomic orbitals, the new orbitals have the same total electron capacity as the old ones. The properties and energies of the new, hybridized orbitals are an 'average' of the original unhybridized orbitals.

sp2 hybridization: This concept  has intermixing of one s-orbitals and two p-orbitals to give three identical hybrid orbitals is known as sp2 or trigonal hybridization".

sp3 hybridization: This concept  has intermixing of one s-orbitals and three p-orbitals to give four identical hybrid orbitals is known as sp3 or tetragonal hybridization".

Explanation of Solution

Hybridization of ( NH4+, SO42 ) molecules: The central nitrogen (N) atom forms four bonds and has does not have loan pair electrons in ammonium ions. So this molecule hybridization state sp3 . Based on VSPER theory the electrons clouds on the atoms around the (N) will repel each other, ammonium ( NH4+ ) ions giving a tetrahedral molecular geometry or tetrahedral shape

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Chapter 9 Solutions

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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