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Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079
Textbook Problem

Draw structural formulas for the following halogenated hydrocarbons.

  1. a. Trichloromethane
  2. b. 1,2-Dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane
  3. c. Isopropyl bromide
  4. d. trans-1-Bromo-3-chlorocyclopentane

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Structural formula for the given halogenated hydrocarbon has to be drawn.

Concept Introduction:

The derivative of alkane with halogen instead of one or more hydrogen atoms is known as halogenated alkane.  If the same is present in cycloalkane, then it is known as halogenated cycloalkane.  They are product of reaction between alkane/cycloalkane with halogens.

IUPAC nomenclature for halogenated alkanes/cycloalkanes:

Similar to the alkyl groups, the halogen is also treated as substituents present on the carbon chain.  They are called as fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, and iodo-.

If the carbon chain contains both alkyl and halogen, they both are considered of equal ranks.  The numbering is done in a way so that the substituents get the least number, whether it is an alkyl or a halo group.

In IUPAC names, the groups that are present on the carbon chain are written in alphabetical order.

Common names:

Halogenated alkanes are also named as alkyl halides.  These are not IUPAC names.  They are common names.  In a common name, two parts are present.  First part is the name of the hydrocarbon (alkyl group).  Second part gives the halogen present in the compound.  The halogen is considered as though it is present as an ion even though no ions are present.

Structural formula for halogenated hydrocabons:

From the IUPAC name or common name that is given for the halogenated hydrocarbon, the structural formula can be drawn.  The parent hydrocarbon is present in the end when considering IUPAC name and in common name, the parent hydrocarbon is present in the first part as an alkyl group.

Explanation

Given name of the halogenated hydrocarbon is Trichloromethane.  From the given name, it is identified that the parent alkane is methane.  Methane has four hydrogen atoms.

The substituents present in the given compound can be identified from the name...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Structural formula for the given halogenated hydrocarbon has to be drawn.

Concept Introduction:

The derivative of alkane with halogen instead of one or more hydrogen atoms is known as halogenated alkane.  If the same is present in cycloalkane, then it is known as halogenated cycloalkane.  They are product of reaction between alkane/cycloalkane with halogens.

IUPAC nomenclature for halogenated alkanes/cycloalkanes:

Similar to the alkyl groups, the halogen is also treated as substituents present on the carbon chain.  They are called as fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, and iodo-.

If the carbon chain contains both alkyl and halogen, they both are considered of equal ranks.  The numbering is done in a way so that the substituents get the least number, whether it is an alkyl or a halo group.

In IUPAC names, the groups that are present on the carbon chain are written in alphabetical order.

Common names:

Halogenated alkanes are also named as alkyl halides.  These are not IUPAC names.  They are common names.  In a common name, two parts are present.  First part is the name of the hydrocarbon (alkyl group).  Second part gives the halogen present in the compound.  The halogen is considered as though it is present as an ion even though no ions are present.

Structural formula for halogenated hydrocabons:

From the IUPAC name or common name that is given for the halogenated hydrocarbon, the structural formula can be drawn.  The parent hydrocarbon is present in the end when considering IUPAC name and in common name, the parent hydrocarbon is present in the first part as an alkyl group.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Structural formula for the given halogenated hydrocarbon has to be drawn.

Concept Introduction:

The derivative of alkane with halogen instead of one or more hydrogen atoms is known as halogenated alkane.  If the same is present in cycloalkane, then it is known as halogenated cycloalkane.  They are product of reaction between alkane/cycloalkane with halogens.

IUPAC nomenclature for halogenated alkanes/cycloalkanes:

Similar to the alkyl groups, the halogen is also treated as substituents present on the carbon chain.  They are called as fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, and iodo-.

If the carbon chain contains both alkyl and halogen, they both are considered of equal ranks.  The numbering is done in a way so that the substituents get the least number, whether it is an alkyl or a halo group.

In IUPAC names, the groups that are present on the carbon chain are written in alphabetical order.

Common names:

Halogenated alkanes are also named as alkyl halides.  These are not IUPAC names.  They are common names.  In a common name, two parts are present.  First part is the name of the hydrocarbon (alkyl group).  Second part gives the halogen present in the compound.  The halogen is considered as though it is present as an ion even though no ions are present.

Structural formula for halogenated hydrocabons:

From the IUPAC name or common name that is given for the halogenated hydrocarbon, the structural formula can be drawn.  The parent hydrocarbon is present in the end when considering IUPAC name and in common name, the parent hydrocarbon is present in the first part as an alkyl group.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Structural formula for the given halogenated hydrocarbon has to be drawn.

Concept Introduction:

The derivative of alkane with halogen instead of one or more hydrogen atoms is known as halogenated alkane.  If the same is present in cycloalkane, then it is known as halogenated cycloalkane.  They are product of reaction between alkane/cycloalkane with halogens.

IUPAC nomenclature for halogenated alkanes/cycloalkanes:

Similar to the alkyl groups, the halogen is also treated as substituents present on the carbon chain.  They are called as fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, and iodo-.

If the carbon chain contains both alkyl and halogen, they both are considered of equal ranks.  The numbering is done in a way so that the substituents get the least number, whether it is an alkyl or a halo group.

In IUPAC names, the groups that are present on the carbon chain are written in alphabetical order.

Common names:

Halogenated alkanes are also named as alkyl halides.  These are not IUPAC names.  They are common names.  In a common name, two parts are present.  First part is the name of the hydrocarbon (alkyl group).  Second part gives the halogen present in the compound.  The halogen is considered as though it is present as an ion even though no ions are present.

Structural formula for halogenated hydrocabons:

From the IUPAC name or common name that is given for the halogenated hydrocarbon, the structural formula can be drawn.  The parent hydrocarbon is present in the end when considering IUPAC name and in common name, the parent hydrocarbon is present in the first part as an alkyl group.

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