   Chapter 13, Problem 9RQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

# What is Le Châtelier’s principle? Consider the reaction 2 NOCI ( g ) ⇌ 2 NO ( g ) + Cl 2 ( g ) If this reaction is at equilibrium. what happens when the following changes occur?a. NOCI(g) is added.b. NO(g) is added.c. NOCI(g) is removed.d. Cl2(g) is removed.e. The container volume is decreased.For each of these changes, what happens to the value of K for the reaction as equilibrium is reached again? Give an example of a reaction for which the addition or removal of one of the reactants or products has no effect on the equilibrium position.In general, how will the equilibrium position of a gas-phase reaction be affected if the volume of the reaction vessel changes? Are there reactions that will not have their equilibria shifted by a change in volume? Explain. Why does changing the pressure in a rigid container by adding an inert gas not shift the equilibrium position for a gas-phase reaction?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The Le Chatelier’s principle is to be defined. The effect of given changes on a equilibrium reaction at equilibrium is to be stated. The various questions based upon the equilibrium position are to be answered.

Concept introduction: Chemical equilibrium is a state of a system in which the rate of the forward reaction and that of the backward reaction is equal. It is affected by various factors such as concentration of reactants or products, temperature, pressure etc.

Explanation

Explanation

(I)

To determine: The definition of Le Chatelier’s principle.

The Le Chatelier’s principle is defined below.

Le Chatelier’s principle states that if there is a change in temperature, pressure or concentration of any system, the equilibrium will shift in a direction that will cover that change. It can be used to increase the yields of chemical reactions.

(a)

To determine: The effect of the given change on the equilibrium reaction.

The addition of NOCl(g) will shift the equilibrium towards right.

The given reaction is,

2NOCl(g)2NO(g)+Cl2(g)

When NOCl(g) is added to the above reaction, the concentration of products will increase. More NOCl(g) will produce more NO . Therefore the equilibrium will shift toward right.

(b)

To determine: The effect of the given change on the equilibrium reaction.

The addition of NO(g) will shift the equilibrium towards left.

The given reaction is,

2NOCl(g)2NO(g)+Cl2(g)

When NO(g) is added to the above reaction, the concentration of reactants will increase. More NO(g) will produce more NOCl(g) . Therefore the equilibrium will shift toward left.

(c)

To determine: The effect of the given change on the equilibrium reaction.

The removal of NOCl(g) will shift the equilibrium towards left.

The given reaction is,

2NOCl(g)2NO(g)+Cl2(g)

When NOCl(g) is removed from the above reaction, the equilibrium will shift to a direction that will produce more NOCl(g) . Therefore the equilibrium will shift toward left producing NOCl(g)

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