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Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097
Textbook Problem

Hemoglobin (abbreviated Hb) is a protein that is responsible for the transport of oxygen in the blood of mammals. Each hemoglobin molecule contains four iron atoms that are the binding sites for O2 molecules. The oxygen binding is pH dependent. The relevant equilibrium reaction is

HbH 4 4+ ( a q ) + 4 O 2 ( g ) Hb ( O 2 ) 4 ( a q ) + 4 H + ( a q )

Use Le Châtelier’s principle to answer the following.

a. What form of hemoglobin, HbH44+ or Hb(O2)4, is favored in the lungs? What form is favored in the cells?

b. When a person hyperventilates, the concentration of CO2 in the blood is decreased. How does this affect the oxygen binding equilibrium? How does breathing into a paper bag help to counteract this effect? (See Exercise 146.)

c. When a person has suffered a cardiac arrest, injection of a sodium bicarbonate solution is given. Why is this necessary? (Hint: CO2 blood levels increase during cardiac arrest.)

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The form of Hemoglobin favored in our lungs and cells, effect of CO2 on the oxygen binding equilibrium and breathing into paper bag, importance of injection of sodium bicarbonate at the time of cardiac arrest is to be stated.

Concept introduction: According to Le-Chatelier’s principle, whenever any condition (temperature, volume, pressure, concentration) associated with a system is changed, the system adjusts itself in a way to minimize the effect of change. In other words if a certain condition associated with a chemical reaction is changed then the reaction shifts in that direction where the effect of that condition is being opposed.

To determine: The form of Hemoglobin favored in our lungs and cells.

Explanation

Explanation

The lungs favor the Hb(O2)4 form of hemoglobin while the cells favor the HbH4+ form of hemoglobin.

Given

The relevant equilibrium reaction is,

HbH4++4O2Hb(O2)4+4H

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The form of Hemoglobin favored in our lungs and cells, effect of CO2 on the oxygen binding equilibrium and breathing into paper bag, importance of injection of sodium bicarbonate at the time of cardiac arrest is to be stated.

Concept introduction: According to Le-Chatelier’s principle, whenever any condition (temperature, volume, pressure, concentration) associated with a system is changed, the system adjusts itself in a way to minimize the effect of change. In other words if a certain condition associated with a chemical reaction is changed then the reaction shifts in that direction where the effect of that condition is being opposed.

To determine: The effect of CO2 on the oxygen binding equilibrium and the effect of breathing into paper bag in contrasting the stated effect.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The form of Hemoglobin favored in our lungs and cells, effect of CO2 on the oxygen binding equilibrium and breathing into paper bag, importance of injection of sodium bicarbonate at the time of cardiac arrest is to be stated.

Concept introduction: According to Le-Chatelier’s principle, whenever any condition (temperature, volume, pressure, concentration) associated with a system is changed, the system adjusts itself in a way to minimize the effect of change. In other words if a certain condition associated with a chemical reaction is changed then the reaction shifts in that direction where the effect of that condition is being opposed.

To determine: The importance of sodium bicarbonate injection at the time of cardiac arrest.

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Chapter 14 Solutions

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Ch-14 P-1ALQCh-14 P-2ALQCh-14 P-3ALQCh-14 P-4ALQCh-14 P-5ALQCh-14 P-6ALQCh-14 P-7ALQCh-14 P-8ALQCh-14 P-9ALQCh-14 P-10ALQCh-14 P-11ALQCh-14 P-12ALQCh-14 P-13ALQCh-14 P-14ALQCh-14 P-15ALQCh-14 P-16ALQCh-14 P-17ALQCh-14 P-18ALQCh-14 P-19QCh-14 P-20QCh-14 P-21QCh-14 P-22QCh-14 P-23QCh-14 P-24QCh-14 P-25QCh-14 P-26QCh-14 P-27QCh-14 P-28QCh-14 P-29QCh-14 P-30QCh-14 P-31QCh-14 P-32QCh-14 P-33QCh-14 P-34QCh-14 P-35ECh-14 P-36ECh-14 P-37ECh-14 P-38ECh-14 P-39ECh-14 P-40ECh-14 P-41ECh-14 P-42ECh-14 P-43ECh-14 P-44ECh-14 P-45ECh-14 P-46ECh-14 P-47ECh-14 P-48ECh-14 P-49ECh-14 P-50ECh-14 P-51ECh-14 P-52ECh-14 P-53ECh-14 P-54ECh-14 P-55ECh-14 P-56ECh-14 P-57ECh-14 P-58ECh-14 P-59ECh-14 P-60ECh-14 P-61ECh-14 P-62ECh-14 P-63ECh-14 P-64ECh-14 P-65ECh-14 P-67ECh-14 P-68ECh-14 P-69ECh-14 P-70ECh-14 P-72ECh-14 P-73ECh-14 P-74ECh-14 P-75ECh-14 P-76ECh-14 P-77ECh-14 P-78ECh-14 P-79ECh-14 P-80ECh-14 P-81ECh-14 P-82ECh-14 P-83ECh-14 P-84ECh-14 P-85ECh-14 P-86ECh-14 P-87ECh-14 P-88ECh-14 P-89ECh-14 P-90ECh-14 P-91ECh-14 P-92ECh-14 P-93ECh-14 P-94ECh-14 P-95ECh-14 P-96ECh-14 P-97ECh-14 P-99ECh-14 P-100ECh-14 P-101ECh-14 P-102ECh-14 P-103ECh-14 P-104ECh-14 P-105ECh-14 P-106ECh-14 P-107ECh-14 P-108ECh-14 P-109ECh-14 P-110ECh-14 P-111ECh-14 P-112ECh-14 P-113ECh-14 P-114ECh-14 P-115ECh-14 P-116ECh-14 P-117ECh-14 P-118ECh-14 P-119ECh-14 P-120ECh-14 P-121ECh-14 P-122ECh-14 P-123ECh-14 P-124ECh-14 P-125ECh-14 P-126ECh-14 P-127ECh-14 P-128ECh-14 P-129ECh-14 P-130ECh-14 P-131ECh-14 P-132ECh-14 P-133ECh-14 P-134ECh-14 P-135ECh-14 P-136ECh-14 P-137ECh-14 P-138ECh-14 P-139ECh-14 P-140ECh-14 P-141ECh-14 P-142ECh-14 P-143AECh-14 P-144AECh-14 P-145AECh-14 P-146AECh-14 P-147AECh-14 P-148AECh-14 P-149AECh-14 P-150AECh-14 P-151AECh-14 P-152AECh-14 P-153AECh-14 P-154AECh-14 P-155AECh-14 P-156AECh-14 P-157AECh-14 P-158AECh-14 P-159AECh-14 P-160AECh-14 P-161AECh-14 P-162CWPCh-14 P-163CWPCh-14 P-164CWPCh-14 P-165CWPCh-14 P-166CWPCh-14 P-167CWPCh-14 P-168CWPCh-14 P-169CWPCh-14 P-170CPCh-14 P-171CPCh-14 P-172CPCh-14 P-173CPCh-14 P-174CPCh-14 P-175CPCh-14 P-176CPCh-14 P-177CPCh-14 P-178CPCh-14 P-179CPCh-14 P-180CPCh-14 P-181CPCh-14 P-182CPCh-14 P-183CPCh-14 P-184CPCh-14 P-185CPCh-14 P-186CPCh-14 P-187IPCh-14 P-188IPCh-14 P-189IPCh-14 P-190MPCh-14 P-191MP

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