   Chapter 14, Problem 178CP

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

# What mass of NaOH(s) must be added to 1.0 L of 0.050 M NH3 to ensure that the percent ionization of NH3 is no greater than 0.0010%? Assume no volume change on addition of NaOH.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The volume and concentration of NH3 is given. The mass of NaOH is to be calculated for the given conditions.

Concept introduction: The percent ionization of NH3 is calculated by taking the concentration of NH4+ ions, divided by its initial concentration of base and multiplying the ratio by 100 .

The equilibrium constant Kb is the ratio of product of equilibrium concentrations of product to the equilibrium concentration of reactant base.

Explanation

Explanation

To determine: The mass of NaOH added in the solution of NH3 .

The concentration of NH4+ in NH3 is 5.0×107M_ .

Given

Volume of NH3 is 1.00L .

The concentration of NH3 is 0.050M .

The percent ionization of ammonia is 0.0010% .

Ammonia (NH3) is a weak base. The dissociation reaction of ammonia in water is,

NH3(aq)+H2O(l)NH4+(aq)+OH(aq)

The percent ionization is calculated by taking the concentration of NH4+ ions, divided by its initial concentration of base and multiplying the ratio by 100 ,

%ionization=[NH4+][NH3]×100

Substitute the values of percent ionization and concentration of NH3 in the above equation.

%ionization=[NH4+][NH3]×1000.001=[NH4+]0.05M×100[NH4+]=5.0×107M_

The concentration of [OH] in the solution is 1.80M_ .

The base dissociation constant (Kb) of ammonia is 1.8×105 .

Make the ICE table for the dissociation reaction of ammonia.

NH3(aq)+H2O(l)NH4+(aq)+OH(aq)Initial(M):0.0500Change(M):5

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