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Chapter 20, Problem 20.80QP

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CHEMISTRY: ATOMS FIRST VOL 1 W/CON...

14th Edition
Burdge
ISBN: 9781259327933

Solutions

Chapter
Section
FindFindarrow_forward

CHEMISTRY: ATOMS FIRST VOL 1 W/CON...

14th Edition
Burdge
ISBN: 9781259327933
Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: For the given radioactive isotopes with a short half-life and long half- life, it should be found the radioactive isotope that poses a greater health hazard.

Concept Introduction:

  • Unstable nuclei emit radiation spontaneously to become stable nuclei by losing energy. This process of emission of radiation by unstable nuclei is known as radioactive decay
  • These emitted radiations may be alpha radiations( α ), beta radiations( β ) or gamma radiations( γ )
  • These unstable nuclei are the nuclei with more than 83 protons and which do not lie within the belt of stability.
  • Radioactive decay is in the first order kinetics. Rate of radioactive decay at a time t is,

    Rate of decay at a time 't' = k Nk-Firstorderrateconstant and its unit is t1N-numberofradioactivenucleipresentattime't

    Suppose the number of radioactive nuclei at time zero is N0 and at a time t is Nt ,

    lnNtN0=-kt

  • Half-life of radioactive decay is the time required for a radioactive sample to decay to one half of the atomic nucleus.

    Half-life of the radiation,  t1/2=0.693k

    Half-life and rate constant for radioactive isotopes vary greatly from nucleus

    to nucleus.

  • Health hazard: A potential source of danger to human health.

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