   Chapter 23, Problem 29PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

A hydrocarbon with the formula C5H10, can be either an alkene or a cycloalkane.(a) Draw a structure for each of the six isomers possible for C5H10, assuming it is an alkene. Give the systematic name of each isomer.(b) Draw a structure for a cycloalkane having the formula C5H10.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The structures with the systematic name for the six isomers of given alkene C5H10 are to drawn.

Concept introduction: Alkenes are the hydrocarbons which have a genral molecular formula CnH2n. Alkenes are consist of double bond (one pi bond) due to which they are known as unsaturated hydrocarbons. Alkenes can show two type of isomerism,(1) Geometrical Isomerism (2) Structural Isomerism.

(1) Geometrical Isomerism: This type of isomerism in case of alkenes is known as cis-trans isomerism. When two same group or have similar priority present opposite side of double bond then isomer is known as trans isomer, and if both are present same side of the double bond then isomer is called as cis isomer.

(2) Structural Isomerism: Structural Isomers are the structure of a molecule with same molecular formula but have different arrangements of bonds and atoms and position of double bond also changes from more substituted to less substituted or vice-versa.

The systematic name has -ene in the suffix of the parent name of the longest carbon atoms chain.

Explanation

The structure explanation is given below.

The given alkene (C5H10) has five carbon atoms and ten hydrogen atoms therefore longest chain will have five carbon atoms with one double bond. There are two possibilities to draw the isomers which have five carbon atoms long chain.

(1) When double bond is present as C-1 of the longest chain of five carbons. The structure is drawn below.

The systematic name of this isomer is 1-pentene as there are five carbon atoms and position of double bond is at C-1 of the longest chain. There will be no geometrical isomer of1-pentene.

(2) When double bond is present as C-2 of the longest chain of five carbons. The two possible structures are drawn below.

The systematic name of this isomer is 2-pentene as there are five carbon atoms and position of double bond is at C-2 of the longest chain.

(3)There are three possibilities to draw the isomers which have four carbon atoms long chain

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The structure of the cycloalkane has to be drawn which have molecular formula C5H10.

Concept introduction:

The hydrocarbons which have a general formula CnH2n are known as Cycloalkanes. Cycloalkanes can be substituted or unsubstituted, when carbon atom is substituted are known as substituted Cycloalkanes or branched Cycloalkanes. A Cycloalkane can be formed when carbon number is more than two. In formula, n is the total number of carbon atoms present in molecule. For example if n is equal to 4 than molecular formula will be C4H8.

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