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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

  1. (a) Name each of the following compounds and its functional group.
    1. (1) CH3CH2 CH2OH

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  1. (2) CH3CH2NH2
  2. (b) Name the product from the reaction of compounds 1 and 2 above.
  3. (c) What is the name and structure of the product from the oxidation of 1 with an excess of oxidizing agent?
  4. (d) Give the name and structure of the compound that results from combining 2 and 3.
  5. (e) What is the result of adding an acid (say HCl) to compound 3?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The name and the functional group of the given compound has to be identified.

Concept introduction:

Carboxylic acid: One OH group is attached to the carbonyl carbon atom of the compound. It is represented as RCOOH

The IUPAC name for the carboxylic acid is written by replcing the ‘e’ of alkanes from “–oic acid”.

Alcohol: It is an organic compound where it contains at least one OH group. It is represented as ROH.

The IUPAC name for the alcohol is written by replcing the ‘e’ of alkanes from “–ol”.

 Amines are the derivatives of ammonia (NH3) with one or more of the hydrogens replaced with a substituent such as an alkyl group.

 Depending on the number of carbon side chain of the nitrogen, different types of amines can form.

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 Primary amines can be named in the IUPAC system in several ways,

 For simple amines the suffix – amine is added to the name of the alkyl substituent.

 The suffix-amine can be used in place of the final –e in the name of the parent compound.

 For a secondary amine an N prefixes the compound giving the shorter carbon chain and its chain prefix name.

 For a tertiary amine an N, N prefixes the compound giving the two shorter carbon chains and their side chain prefix names.

Explanation

The given compound 1 is,

  

It is an alcohol since it has OH group. There is three carbon atoms longest chain with OH group at C-1. Therefore, systematic name of this alcohol is 1-propanol.

The given compound 2 is,

  

It is a carboxylic acid as it has COOH group. There is two carbon atoms longest chain with COOH group at C-1

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The product from the reaction of compound 1 and 2 has to be given.

Concept introduction:

Esterification reaction: Esters are prepared by the reaction of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol molecule with the elimination of water molecule. The addition of a strong acid such as H2SO4 is used to increase the rate of reaction.

Here, the OH group is attached to the carbonyl carbon atom of the carboxylic acid is being replaced by OR' in the alcohol forming ester and water.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The name and structure of the product from the oxidation of 1 with an excess of oxidizing agent has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Oxidation reaction: The reaction in which addition of oxygen takes place.

An alcohol on oxidation gives a carboxylic acid as the main product when reacts in presence of excess oxidising agents.

Carboxylic acid: One OH group is attached to the carbonyl carbon atom of the compound. It is represented as RCOOH

The IUPAC name for the carboxylic acid is written by replcing the ‘e’ of alkanes from “–oic acid”.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The name and structure of the compound that results from combining 2 and 3 has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

Amide Formation: Amide is formed when a carboxylic acid reacts with an amine or ammonia.

Here, the OH group is attached to the carbonyl carbon atom of the carboxylic acid is being replaced by NH2, NHR' or NR'2 group in the amine or ammonia forming amide and water.

 Depending on the number of carbon side chain of the amide, different types of amides can form.

 images

 Primary amides can be named in the IUPAC system in several ways,

 For simple amides the suffix – amide is added to the name of the alkyl substituent.

 The suffix- amide can be used in place of the final –e in the name of the parent compound.

 For a secondary amides an N prefixes the compound giving the shorter carbon chain and its chain prefix name.

 For a tertiary amides an N, N prefixes the compound giving the two shorter carbon chains and their side chain prefix names.

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The result of adding acid (HCl) to compound 3 has to be determined.

Concept introduction:

The reaction of an amine with an acid is knwon as acid-base reaction. An amine has lone pair of electrons which acts as a base and accepts the proton and the salt formtaion takes place.

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Chapter 23 Solutions

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Sect-23.5 P-1.3ACPSect-23.5 P-2.1ACPSect-23.5 P-2.2ACPSect-23.5 P-2.3ACPSect-23.5 P-3.1ACPSect-23.5 P-3.2ACPSect-23.5 P-3.3ACPSect-23.5 P-3.4ACPSect-23.5 P-3.5ACPCh-23 P-1PSCh-23 P-2PSCh-23 P-3PSCh-23 P-4PSCh-23 P-5PSCh-23 P-6PSCh-23 P-7PSCh-23 P-8PSCh-23 P-9PSCh-23 P-10PSCh-23 P-11PSCh-23 P-12PSCh-23 P-13PSCh-23 P-14PSCh-23 P-15PSCh-23 P-16PSCh-23 P-17PSCh-23 P-18PSCh-23 P-19PSCh-23 P-20PSCh-23 P-21PSCh-23 P-22PSCh-23 P-23PSCh-23 P-24PSCh-23 P-25PSCh-23 P-26PSCh-23 P-27PSCh-23 P-28PSCh-23 P-29PSCh-23 P-30PSCh-23 P-31PSCh-23 P-32PSCh-23 P-33PSCh-23 P-34PSCh-23 P-35PSCh-23 P-36PSCh-23 P-37PSCh-23 P-38PSCh-23 P-39PSCh-23 P-40PSCh-23 P-41PSCh-23 P-42PSCh-23 P-43PSCh-23 P-44PSCh-23 P-45PSCh-23 P-46PSCh-23 P-47PSCh-23 P-48PSCh-23 P-49PSCh-23 P-50PSCh-23 P-51PSCh-23 P-52PSCh-23 P-53PSCh-23 P-54PSCh-23 P-55PSCh-23 P-56PSCh-23 P-57PSCh-23 P-58PSCh-23 P-59PSCh-23 P-60PSCh-23 P-61PSCh-23 P-62PSCh-23 P-63PSCh-23 P-64PSCh-23 P-65PSCh-23 P-66PSCh-23 P-67PSCh-23 P-68PSCh-23 P-69PSCh-23 P-70PSCh-23 P-71PSCh-23 P-72PSCh-23 P-73PSCh-23 P-74PSCh-23 P-75GQCh-23 P-76GQCh-23 P-77GQCh-23 P-78GQCh-23 P-79GQCh-23 P-80GQCh-23 P-81GQCh-23 P-82GQCh-23 P-83GQCh-23 P-84GQCh-23 P-85GQCh-23 P-86GQCh-23 P-87GQCh-23 P-88GQCh-23 P-89GQCh-23 P-90GQCh-23 P-91GQCh-23 P-92GQCh-23 P-93GQCh-23 P-94GQCh-23 P-95GQCh-23 P-96GQCh-23 P-97GQCh-23 P-98GQCh-23 P-99GQCh-23 P-100GQCh-23 P-101GQCh-23 P-102GQCh-23 P-103ILCh-23 P-104ILCh-23 P-105ILCh-23 P-106ILCh-23 P-107ILCh-23 P-108ILCh-23 P-109ILCh-23 P-110ILCh-23 P-111ILCh-23 P-112ILCh-23 P-113ILCh-23 P-114ILCh-23 P-115SCQCh-23 P-116SCQCh-23 P-117SCQCh-23 P-118SCQCh-23 P-119SCQCh-23 P-120SCQCh-23 P-121SCQ

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