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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 3, Problem 96E
Textbook Problem
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Place the species below in order of the shortest to the longest nitrogen–oxygen bond.

H 2 NOH, N 2 O, NO+ NO 2 , NO 3

(H2NOH exists as H2N—OH.)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The given species are to be arranged in the increasing order of bond strength.

Concept introduction: The distance between the centers of bonded atoms is called bond length. Bond length is inversely proportional to bond order or number of bonds.

To determine: The increasing order of bond length for the molecules H2NOH,N2O,NO+,NO2,NO3 .

Explanation of Solution

Bond length refers to distance between the nuclei of two atoms bonded together. It depends on the following parameters,

  • Number of bonds/bond order: Bond length decreases with increase in number of bonds. The order is single bond>Double bond>triple bond.
  • Type of orbitals: Bond length decreases with increase in s-charaters.

The given molecules are H2NOH,N2O,NO+,NO2,NO3 . The Lewis structure should be drawn to know about the type of bonds in these molecules.

The Lewis structure of H2NOH is,

The first step in determining the Lewis structure is to determine the number of valence electrons. The atomic number of nitrogen (N) is 7 and its electronic configuration is,

1s22s22p3

The valence electron of nitrogen is 5

The atomic number of hydrogen (H) is 1 and its electronic configuration is,

1s1

The valence electron of hydrogen is 1

The atomic number of oxygen (O) is 8 and its electronic configuration is,

1s22s22p4

The valence electron of oxygen is 6

The molecule H2NOH is made of three hydrogen atoms, nitrogen and oxygen atom; hence, the total number of valence electrons is,

3H+N+O=3×1+5+6=14

The N2O has two resonance structure

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Chapter 3 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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