   Chapter 10, Problem 101IL

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

You have 1.249 g of a mixture of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3. You find that 12.0 mL of 1.50 M HCl is required to convert the sample completely to NaCl, H2O, and CO2.NaHCO3(aq) + HCl(aq) →NaCl(aq) + H2O(ℓ) + CO2(g)Na2CO3(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) →2 NaCl(aq) + H2O(ℓ) + CO2(g)What volume of CO2 is evolved at 745 mm Hg and 25 °C?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Considering the given chemical reaction under given temperature and pressure conditions the volume of CO2 produced under given conditions should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Ideal gas Equation:

Any gas is described by using four terms namely pressure, volume, temperature and the amount of gas. Thus combining three laws namely Boyle’s, Charles’s Law and Avogadro’s Hypothesis the following equation could be obtained. It is referred as ideal gas equation.

nTPV = RnTPPV = nRTwhere,n = moles of gasP = pressureT = temperatureR = gas constant

Under some conditions gases don not behave like ideal gas that is they deviate from their ideal gas properties. At lower temperature and at high pressures the gas tends to deviate and behave like real gases.

Boyle’s Law:

At given constant temperature conditions the mass of given ideal gas in inversely proportional to its volume.

Charles’s Law:

At given constant pressure conditions the volume of ideal gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

Two equal volumes of gases with same temperature and pressure conditions tend to have same number of molecules with it.

Explanation

Given:

Volume of CO2 = ?Pressure=745mmHg=745mmHg760mmHgTemperature = 25oC=273.15+25=298.15KMass of given mixture =1.29 gVolume of HCl=12.0mLConcentration of HCl = 1.5M

The volume of CO2 produced in a chemical reaction is determined by first calculating the moles of carbon dioxide produced.

Now, the moles of CO2 is calculated from the given set of conditions,

Available moles of HClconcentration =MolesVolume in LMoles=concentration×Volume in L=1.5M×1.2×103L=1

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