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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Chlorine trifluoride, ClF3, is a valuable reagent because it can be used to convert metal oxides to metal fluorides:

6 NiO(s) + 4 ClF3(g) → 6 NiF2(s) + 2 Cl2(g) + 3 O2(g)

  1. (a) What mass of NiO will react with ClF3 gas if the gas has a pressure of 250 mm Hg at 20 °C in a 2.5-L flask?
  2. (b) If the ClF3 described in part (a) is completely consumed, what are the partial pressures of Cl2 and of O2 in the 2.5-L flask at 20 °C (in mm Hg)? What is the total pressure in the flask?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given reaction the mass of the given species under given conditions, the partial pressures of given species and the total pressure under given conditions should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Balanced Chemical Equation:

The chemical reaction when the number of atoms present in the reactant side of the reaction should be equal to the number and the charge of atoms present in the product side of the reaction which then only be considered as balanced.

Ideal gas equation:

Any gas is described by using four terms namely pressure, volume, temperature and the amount of gas. Thus combining three laws namely Boyle’s, Charles’s Law and Avogadro’s Hypothesis the following equation could be obtained. It is referred as ideal gas equation.

   nTPV = RnTPPV = nRTwhere,n = moles of gasP = pressureT = temperatureR = gas constant

Under some conditions gases don not behave like ideal gas that is they deviate from their ideal gas properties. At lower temperature and at high pressures the gas tends to deviate and behave like real gases.

Boyle’s Law:

At given constant temperature conditions the mass of given ideal gas in inversely proportional to its volume.

Charles’s Law:

At given constant pressure conditions the volume of ideal gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

Avogadro’s Hypothesis:

Two equal volumes of gases with same temperature and pressure conditions tend to have same number of molecules with it.

Mole fraction: The mole fraction of denotes the individual presence of the component present in the given chemical reaction.

Consider general equation that contains reactants X and Y then the mole fraction of X is determined as follows,

  Mole fraction of Mole fraction of one component = Moles of that componentTotal moles present in the reactionMole fraction of X = Number of moles of XNumber of moles of X + Number of moles of Y

The relationship between partial pressure and Ptotal is

        Pi=χiPtotalwhere,Pi=partial pressureχi=molefractionPtotal=Totalpressure

Explanation

Given:

  Mass of NiO = ?P=250mmHgT=20oCV=2.5L

Consider the given chemical reaction and calculate the mass as follows,

  n =PVRT=250760×2

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given reaction the mass of the given species under given conditions, the partial pressures of given species and the total pressure under given conditions should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Balanced Chemical Equation:

The chemical reaction when the number of atoms present in the reactant side of the reaction should be equal to the number and the charge of atoms present in the product side of the reaction which then only be considered as balanced.

Ideal gas equation:

Any gas is described by using four terms namely pressure, volume, temperature and the amount of gas. Thus combining three laws namely Boyle’s, Charles’s Law and Avogadro’s Hypothesis the following equation could be obtained. It is referred as ideal gas equation.

   nTPV = RnTPPV = nRTwhere,n = moles of gasP = pressureT = temperatureR = gas constant

Under some conditions gases don not behave like ideal gas that is they deviate from their ideal gas properties. At lower temperature and at high pressures the gas tends to deviate and behave like real gases.

Boyle’s Law:

At given constant temperature conditions the mass of given ideal gas in inversely proportional to its volume.

Charles’s Law:

At given constant pressure conditions the volume of ideal gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

Avogadro’s Hypothesis:

Two equal volumes of gases with same temperature and pressure conditions tend to have same number of molecules with it.

Mole fraction: The mole fraction of denotes the individual presence of the component present in the given chemical reaction.

Consider general equation that contains reactants X and Y then the mole fraction of X is determined as follows,

  Mole fraction of Mole fraction of one component = Moles of that componentTotal moles present in the reactionMole fraction of X = Number of moles of XNumber of moles of X + Number of moles of Y

The relationship between partial pressure and Ptotal is

        Pi=χiPtotalwhere,Pi=partial pressureχi=molefractionPtotal=Totalpressure

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Chapter 10 Solutions

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Sect-10.6 P-10.11CYUSect-10.7 P-10.12CYUSect-10.8 P-1.1ACPSect-10.8 P-1.2ACPSect-10.8 P-2.1ACPSect-10.8 P-2.2ACPSect-10.8 P-2.3ACPSect-10.8 P-3.1ACPSect-10.8 P-3.2ACPCh-10 P-1PSCh-10 P-2PSCh-10 P-3PSCh-10 P-4PSCh-10 P-5PSCh-10 P-6PSCh-10 P-7PSCh-10 P-8PSCh-10 P-9PSCh-10 P-10PSCh-10 P-11PSCh-10 P-12PSCh-10 P-13PSCh-10 P-14PSCh-10 P-15PSCh-10 P-16PSCh-10 P-17PSCh-10 P-18PSCh-10 P-19PSCh-10 P-20PSCh-10 P-21PSCh-10 P-22PSCh-10 P-23PSCh-10 P-24PSCh-10 P-25PSCh-10 P-26PSCh-10 P-27PSCh-10 P-28PSCh-10 P-29PSCh-10 P-30PSCh-10 P-31PSCh-10 P-32PSCh-10 P-33PSCh-10 P-34PSCh-10 P-35PSCh-10 P-36PSCh-10 P-37PSCh-10 P-38PSCh-10 P-39PSCh-10 P-40PSCh-10 P-41PSCh-10 P-42PSCh-10 P-43PSCh-10 P-44PSCh-10 P-45PSCh-10 P-46PSCh-10 P-47PSCh-10 P-48PSCh-10 P-49PSCh-10 P-50PSCh-10 P-51PSCh-10 P-52PSCh-10 P-53PSCh-10 P-54PSCh-10 P-55PSCh-10 P-56PSCh-10 P-57GQCh-10 P-58GQCh-10 P-59GQCh-10 P-60GQCh-10 P-61GQCh-10 P-62GQCh-10 P-63GQCh-10 P-64GQCh-10 P-65GQCh-10 P-66GQCh-10 P-67GQCh-10 P-68GQCh-10 P-69GQCh-10 P-70GQCh-10 P-71GQCh-10 P-72GQCh-10 P-73GQCh-10 P-74GQCh-10 P-75GQCh-10 P-76GQCh-10 P-77GQCh-10 P-78GQCh-10 P-79GQCh-10 P-80GQCh-10 P-81GQCh-10 P-83GQCh-10 P-84GQCh-10 P-85GQCh-10 P-86GQCh-10 P-87GQCh-10 P-88GQCh-10 P-89GQCh-10 P-90GQCh-10 P-91GQCh-10 P-92GQCh-10 P-93GQCh-10 P-94GQCh-10 P-95ILCh-10 P-96ILCh-10 P-97ILCh-10 P-98ILCh-10 P-99ILCh-10 P-100ILCh-10 P-101ILCh-10 P-102ILCh-10 P-103ILCh-10 P-105ILCh-10 P-106ILCh-10 P-107SCQCh-10 P-108SCQCh-10 P-109SCQCh-10 P-110SCQCh-10 P-111SCQCh-10 P-112SCQCh-10 P-113SCQCh-10 P-114SCQCh-10 P-115SCQCh-10 P-116SCQ

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