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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Ammonia gas is synthesized by combining hydrogen and nitrogen:

3 H2(g) + N2(g) → 2 NH3(g)

  1. (a) If you want to produce 562 g of NH3, what volume of H2 gas, at 56 °C and 745 mm Hg, is required?
  2. (b) Nitrogen for this reaction will be obtained from air. What volume of air, measured at 29 °C and 745 mm Hg pressure, will be required to provide the nitrogen needed to produce 562 g of NH3? Assume the sample of air contains 78.1 mole % N2.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given reaction the given set of questions should be answered.

Concept Introduction:

Balanced Chemical Equation:

The chemical reaction when the number of atoms present in the reactant side of the reaction should be equal to the number and the charge of atoms present in the product side of the reaction which then only be considered as balanced.

Ideal gas equation:

Any gas is described by using four terms namely pressure, volume, temperature and the amount of gas. Thus combining three laws namely Boyle’s, Charles’s Law and Avogadro’s Hypothesis the following equation could be obtained. It is referred as ideal gas equation.

   nTPV = RnTPPV = nRTwhere,n = moles of gasP = pressureT = temperatureR = gas constant

Under some conditions gases don not behave like ideal gas that is they deviate from their ideal gas properties. At lower temperature and at high pressures the gas tends to deviate and behave like real gases.

Boyle’s Law:

At given constant temperature conditions the mass of given ideal gas in inversely proportional to its volume.

Charles’s Law:

At given constant pressure conditions the volume of ideal gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

Avogadro’s Hypothesis:

Two equal volumes of gases with same temperature and pressure conditions tend to have same number of molecules with it.

Mole fraction: The mole fraction of denotes the individual presence of the component present in the given chemical reaction.

Consider general equation that contains reactants X and Y then the mole fraction of X is determined as follows,

  Mole fraction of Mole fraction of one component = Moles of that componentTotal moles present in the reactionMole fraction of X = Number of moles of XNumber of moles of X + Number of moles of Y

The relationship between partial pressure and Ptotal is

    Pi=χiPtotalwhere,Pi=partial pressureχi=molefractionPtotal=Totalpressure

Explanation

Given:

  P=745mmHgT=56oCMass=562gV=?

The required volume of hydrogen is calculated as follows,

  Moles of NH3 =MassMolarmass=56217=33.06molesMoles of H2for 33

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given reaction the given set of questions should be answered.

Concept Introduction:

Balanced Chemical Equation:

The chemical reaction when the number of atoms present in the reactant side of the reaction should be equal to the number and the charge of atoms present in the product side of the reaction which then only be considered as balanced.

Ideal gas equation:

Any gas is described by using four terms namely pressure, volume, temperature and the amount of gas. Thus combining three laws namely Boyle’s, Charles’s Law and Avogadro’s Hypothesis the following equation could be obtained. It is referred as ideal gas equation.

   nTPV = RnTPPV = nRTwhere,n = moles of gasP = pressureT = temperatureR = gas constant

Under some conditions gases don not behave like ideal gas that is they deviate from their ideal gas properties. At lower temperature and at high pressures the gas tends to deviate and behave like real gases.

Boyle’s Law:

At given constant temperature conditions the mass of given ideal gas in inversely proportional to its volume.

Charles’s Law:

At given constant pressure conditions the volume of ideal gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

Avogadro’s Hypothesis:

Two equal volumes of gases with same temperature and pressure conditions tend to have same number of molecules with it.

Mole fraction: The mole fraction of denotes the individual presence of the component present in the given chemical reaction.

Consider general equation that contains reactants X and Y then the mole fraction of X is determined as follows,

  Mole fraction of Mole fraction of one component = Moles of that componentTotal moles present in the reactionMole fraction of X = Number of moles of XNumber of moles of X + Number of moles of Y

The relationship between partial pressure and Ptotal is

    Pi=χiPtotalwhere,Pi=partial pressureχi=molefractionPtotal=Totalpressure

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Chapter 10 Solutions

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Sect-10.6 P-10.11CYUSect-10.7 P-10.12CYUSect-10.8 P-1.1ACPSect-10.8 P-1.2ACPSect-10.8 P-2.1ACPSect-10.8 P-2.2ACPSect-10.8 P-2.3ACPSect-10.8 P-3.1ACPSect-10.8 P-3.2ACPCh-10 P-1PSCh-10 P-2PSCh-10 P-3PSCh-10 P-4PSCh-10 P-5PSCh-10 P-6PSCh-10 P-7PSCh-10 P-8PSCh-10 P-9PSCh-10 P-10PSCh-10 P-11PSCh-10 P-12PSCh-10 P-13PSCh-10 P-14PSCh-10 P-15PSCh-10 P-16PSCh-10 P-17PSCh-10 P-18PSCh-10 P-19PSCh-10 P-20PSCh-10 P-21PSCh-10 P-22PSCh-10 P-23PSCh-10 P-24PSCh-10 P-25PSCh-10 P-26PSCh-10 P-27PSCh-10 P-28PSCh-10 P-29PSCh-10 P-30PSCh-10 P-31PSCh-10 P-32PSCh-10 P-33PSCh-10 P-34PSCh-10 P-35PSCh-10 P-36PSCh-10 P-37PSCh-10 P-38PSCh-10 P-39PSCh-10 P-40PSCh-10 P-41PSCh-10 P-42PSCh-10 P-43PSCh-10 P-44PSCh-10 P-45PSCh-10 P-46PSCh-10 P-47PSCh-10 P-48PSCh-10 P-49PSCh-10 P-50PSCh-10 P-51PSCh-10 P-52PSCh-10 P-53PSCh-10 P-54PSCh-10 P-55PSCh-10 P-56PSCh-10 P-57GQCh-10 P-58GQCh-10 P-59GQCh-10 P-60GQCh-10 P-61GQCh-10 P-62GQCh-10 P-63GQCh-10 P-64GQCh-10 P-65GQCh-10 P-66GQCh-10 P-67GQCh-10 P-68GQCh-10 P-69GQCh-10 P-70GQCh-10 P-71GQCh-10 P-72GQCh-10 P-73GQCh-10 P-74GQCh-10 P-75GQCh-10 P-76GQCh-10 P-77GQCh-10 P-78GQCh-10 P-79GQCh-10 P-80GQCh-10 P-81GQCh-10 P-83GQCh-10 P-84GQCh-10 P-85GQCh-10 P-86GQCh-10 P-87GQCh-10 P-88GQCh-10 P-89GQCh-10 P-90GQCh-10 P-91GQCh-10 P-92GQCh-10 P-93GQCh-10 P-94GQCh-10 P-95ILCh-10 P-96ILCh-10 P-97ILCh-10 P-98ILCh-10 P-99ILCh-10 P-100ILCh-10 P-101ILCh-10 P-102ILCh-10 P-103ILCh-10 P-105ILCh-10 P-106ILCh-10 P-107SCQCh-10 P-108SCQCh-10 P-109SCQCh-10 P-110SCQCh-10 P-111SCQCh-10 P-112SCQCh-10 P-113SCQCh-10 P-114SCQCh-10 P-115SCQCh-10 P-116SCQ

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