   Chapter 10, Problem 116SCQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

A Chlorine gas (Cl2) is used as a disinfectant in municipal water supplies, although chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and ozone are becoming more widely used. ClO2 is a better choice than Cl2 in this application because it leads to fewer chlorinated by-products, which are themselves pollutants. (a) How many valence electrons are in ClO2? (b) The chlorite ion, ClO2−, is obtained by reducing ClO2. Draw a possible electron dot structure for ClO2−. (Cl is the central atom.) (c) What is the hybridization of the central Cl atom in ClO2−? What is the shape of the ion? (d) Which species has the larger bond angle, O3 or ClO2−? Explain briefly. (e) Chlorine dioxide, ClO2, a yellow-green gas, can be made by the reaction of chlorine with sodium chlorite: 2 NaClO2(s) + Cl2(g) → 2 NaCl(s) + 2 ClO2(g) Assume you react 15.6 g of NaClO2 with chlorine gas, which has a pressure of 1050 mm Hg in a 1.45-L flask at 22 °C. What mass of ClO2 can be produced?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given reaction the under given conditions the valence electrons present in the given compound should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Valence electrons: The outermost electrons present in the compound other than the inner core electrons are denoted as valence electrons.  The valence electrons are responsible for the bond formation.

There are about 19 valence electrons present in the given compound.

Explanation

The given compound ClO2 contains two oxygen atoms and one chlorine atom. The atomic number of oxygen is 8 it says that there are about 6 valence electrons present in the outer most shell of each oxygen since arrangement of electrons around atom is as follows.

1s2,2s

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given reaction the under given conditions the valence electrons present in the given compound ClO2, the electrons dot structure, hybridization shape around the central atom present in the given compound, bond angle and the mass of ClO2 obtained under given reaction conditions should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Lewis dot structure: It is the representation of chemical substance that how the valence are represented as dot and placed around the each atom present in the substance by considering the number of atoms with their valence electrons and number of bonds present in the given chemical substance.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given reaction the under given conditions the angle and the mass of ClO2 obtained under given reaction conditions should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Hybridization refers to mixing of orbitals.  The orbitals of different atoms overlap with each other and form a set of new orbitals called hybrid orbitals.  The number of orbitals that are combined equal to the number of hybrid orbitals formed by combination.

An isolated atom remains in excited state and comes back to ground state.   In this situation, it is difficult for orbitals to hybridize.

Hybridization is a hypothetical concept.  It refers to mixing of atomic orbitals and the resultant orbitals formed are known as hybrid orbitals.  After hybridization, the orbitals cannot be distinguished individually.  Based on hybridization one can predict the geometry of the molecule though some deviations do exist.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given reaction the under given conditions the valence electrons present in the given compound ClO2, the electrons dot structure, hybridization shape around the central atom present in the given compound, bond angle and the mass of ClO2 obtained under given reaction conditions should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Bond angle: The angle formed between two bonds that is where two atoms gets bonded with the third central atom present.

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the given reaction the under given conditions the mass of ClO2 obtained under given reaction conditions should be determined.

Concept introduction:

Ideal gas equation:

Any gas is described by using four terms namely pressure, volume, temperature and the amount of gas.  Thus combining three laws namely Boyle’s, Charles’s Law and Avogadro’s Hypothesis the following equation could be obtained.  It is referred as ideal gas equation.

nTPV = RnTPPV = nRTwhere,n = moles of gasP = pressureT = temperatureR = gas constant

Under some conditions gases don not behave like ideal gas that is they deviate from their ideal gas properties.  At lower temperature and at high pressures the gas tends to deviate and behave like real gases.

Boyle’s Law:

At given constant temperature conditions the mass of given ideal gas in inversely proportional to its volume.

Charles’s Law:

At given constant pressure conditions the volume of ideal gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

Two equal volumes of gases with same temperature and pressure conditions tend to have same number of molecules with it.

The relationship between partial pressure and Ptotal is

Pi=χiPtotalwhere,Pi=partial pressureχi=molefractionPtotal=Totalpressure

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