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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

You wish to fill a 75 L airbag at 25 °C to 3.0 atm using ammounium nitrate.

  1. a. What mass of NH4NO3 would be required?
  2. b. What are the partial pressures of N2O and H2O in the airbag?

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The required mass of NH4NO3 has to be calculated.

Concept Introduction:

Different laws have been put forward to introduce properties of gases:

Boyle’s law:

At fixed temperature, the volume of a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure exerted by the gas.

  P1V(n,Twillbeconstant)

Charles’s law: States that volume is directly proportional to temperature when the gas is held at constant pressure and number of molecules.

VT

General Gas Law: Combining Charles’s law and Boyle’s law we get the General gas law or combined gas law.

  P1V1T1=P2V2T2

Avogadro’s hypothesis:

  • To relate the amount of gas and the volume.
  • VnatconstantTandP

Combining all these together ideal gas law is introduced:

  PV=nRT

Dalton’s law of partial pressure: The total pressure of gases in a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressure of each gas in the mixture

Mole fraction: Quantity which defines the number of moles of a substance in a mixture divided by the total number of moles of all substances present.

xa=nantotal

  pa=xa×Ptotal

Partial pressure of a gas in the mixture of gases is the product of mole fraction of the gas and the total pressure

Explanation

The mass of NH4NO3 required to fill a 75L air bag at given conditions.

Ideal gas law: PV=nRT

  R=0.0827L.atmK.molTshouldbeexpressedinKPshouldbeexpressedinatm

Given data:

  P=3atmT=25°C=25+273=298KV=75L

From ideal gas equation:

  n=PVRT=3atm×75L0.0827L.atm/K.mol×298K=9

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The partial pressures of N2OandH2O in the airbag has to be calculated.

Concept Introduction:

Different laws have been put forward to introduce properties of gases:

Boyle’s law:

At fixed temperature, the volume of a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure exerted by the gas.

  P1V(n,Twillbeconstant)

Charles’s law: States that volume is directly proportional to temperature when the gas is held at constant pressure and number of molecules.

images

General Gas Law: Combining Charles’s law and Boyle’s law we get the General gas law or combined gas law.

  P1V1T1=P2V2T2

Avogadro’s hypothesis:

  • To relate the amount of gas and the volume.
  • VnatconstantTandP

Combining all these together ideal gas law is introduced:

  PV=nRT

Dalton’s law of partial pressure: The total pressure of gases in a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressure of each gas in the mixture

Mole fraction: Quantity which defines the number of moles of a substance in a mixture divided by the total number of moles of all substances present.

xa=nantotal

  pa=xa×Ptotal

Partial pressure of a gas in the mixture of gases is the product of mole fraction of the gas and the total pressure

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Chapter 10 Solutions

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Sect-10.6 P-10.11CYUSect-10.7 P-10.12CYUSect-10.8 P-1.1ACPSect-10.8 P-1.2ACPSect-10.8 P-2.1ACPSect-10.8 P-2.2ACPSect-10.8 P-2.3ACPSect-10.8 P-3.1ACPSect-10.8 P-3.2ACPCh-10 P-1PSCh-10 P-2PSCh-10 P-3PSCh-10 P-4PSCh-10 P-5PSCh-10 P-6PSCh-10 P-7PSCh-10 P-8PSCh-10 P-9PSCh-10 P-10PSCh-10 P-11PSCh-10 P-12PSCh-10 P-13PSCh-10 P-14PSCh-10 P-15PSCh-10 P-16PSCh-10 P-17PSCh-10 P-18PSCh-10 P-19PSCh-10 P-20PSCh-10 P-21PSCh-10 P-22PSCh-10 P-23PSCh-10 P-24PSCh-10 P-25PSCh-10 P-26PSCh-10 P-27PSCh-10 P-28PSCh-10 P-29PSCh-10 P-30PSCh-10 P-31PSCh-10 P-32PSCh-10 P-33PSCh-10 P-34PSCh-10 P-35PSCh-10 P-36PSCh-10 P-37PSCh-10 P-38PSCh-10 P-39PSCh-10 P-40PSCh-10 P-41PSCh-10 P-42PSCh-10 P-43PSCh-10 P-44PSCh-10 P-45PSCh-10 P-46PSCh-10 P-47PSCh-10 P-48PSCh-10 P-49PSCh-10 P-50PSCh-10 P-51PSCh-10 P-52PSCh-10 P-53PSCh-10 P-54PSCh-10 P-55PSCh-10 P-56PSCh-10 P-57GQCh-10 P-58GQCh-10 P-59GQCh-10 P-60GQCh-10 P-61GQCh-10 P-62GQCh-10 P-63GQCh-10 P-64GQCh-10 P-65GQCh-10 P-66GQCh-10 P-67GQCh-10 P-68GQCh-10 P-69GQCh-10 P-70GQCh-10 P-71GQCh-10 P-72GQCh-10 P-73GQCh-10 P-74GQCh-10 P-75GQCh-10 P-76GQCh-10 P-77GQCh-10 P-78GQCh-10 P-79GQCh-10 P-80GQCh-10 P-81GQCh-10 P-83GQCh-10 P-84GQCh-10 P-85GQCh-10 P-86GQCh-10 P-87GQCh-10 P-88GQCh-10 P-89GQCh-10 P-90GQCh-10 P-91GQCh-10 P-92GQCh-10 P-93GQCh-10 P-94GQCh-10 P-95ILCh-10 P-96ILCh-10 P-97ILCh-10 P-98ILCh-10 P-99ILCh-10 P-100ILCh-10 P-101ILCh-10 P-102ILCh-10 P-103ILCh-10 P-105ILCh-10 P-106ILCh-10 P-107SCQCh-10 P-108SCQCh-10 P-109SCQCh-10 P-110SCQCh-10 P-111SCQCh-10 P-112SCQCh-10 P-113SCQCh-10 P-114SCQCh-10 P-115SCQCh-10 P-116SCQ

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