menu
bartleby
search
close search
Hit Return to see all results
close solutoin list

Bruce Ames and his colleagues have pointed out that although detailed toxicological analysis has been conducted on synthetic chemicals, almost no information is available about the mutagenic or carcinogenic effects of the toxins produced by plants as a natural defense against fungi, insects, and animal predators. Tens of thousands of such compounds have been discovered, and he estimates that in the United States adults eat about 1.5 g of these compounds each day—levels that are approximately 10,000 times higher than those of the synthetic pesticides present in the diet. For example, cabbage contains 49 natural pesticides and metabolites, and only a few of these have been tested for their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. a. With the introduction of new foods into the U.S. diet over the last 200 years (mangoes, kiwi fruit, tomatoes, and so forth), has there been enough time for humans to develop resistance to the mutagenic effects of the toxins present in those foods? b. The natural pesticides present in plants constitute more than 99% of the toxins we eat. Should diet planning, especially for vegetarians, take into account the doses of toxins present in the diet?

BuyFindarrow_forward

Human Heredity: Principles and Iss...

11th Edition
Michael Cummings
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305251052

Solutions

Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Human Heredity: Principles and Iss...

11th Edition
Michael Cummings
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305251052
Chapter 11, Problem 8QP
Textbook Problem
205 views

Bruce Ames and his colleagues have pointed out that although detailed toxicological analysis has been conducted on synthetic chemicals, almost no information is available about the mutagenic or carcinogenic effects of the toxins produced by plants as a natural defense against fungi, insects, and animal predators. Tens of thousands of such compounds have been discovered, and he estimates that in the United States adults eat about 1.5 g of these compounds each day—levels that are approximately 10,000 times higher than those of the synthetic pesticides present in the diet. For example, cabbage contains 49 natural pesticides and metabolites, and only a few of these have been tested for their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects.

  1. a. With the introduction of new foods into the U.S. diet over the last 200 years (mangoes, kiwi fruit, tomatoes, and so forth), has there been enough time for humans to develop resistance to the mutagenic effects of the toxins present in those foods?
  2. b. The natural pesticides present in plants constitute more than 99% of the toxins we eat. Should diet planning, especially for vegetarians, take into account the doses of toxins present in the diet?

a.

Summary Introduction

To explain: Whether humans have developed resistance against the mutagenic effects of the toxins that are present in new foods like kiwi, mangoes, and tomatoes.

Introduction: Food is defined as a substance which is edible and has nutritional value. Naturally occurring toxins are found in a large number of foods such as prussic acid (hydrocyanic acid) found in cherries, apples, and peaches and phytic acid is found in grains and nuts.

Explanation of Solution

Modern time fruits like mangoes, tomatoes, and kiwis were not present at before evolution of humans. The human diet has changed a lot from the past 200 years. Natural selection works on humans too and they are developing resistance against mutagens present in these foods gradually...

b.

Summary Introduction

To explain: Whether the diet routine of vegetarians should take the toxin levels of different foods into account.

Introduction: Food is defined as a substance which is edible and has nutritional value. Naturally occurring toxins are found in a large number of foods such as prussic acid (hydrocyanic acid) found in cherries, apples, and peaches and phytic acid is found in grains and nuts.

Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Chapter 11 Solutions

Human Heredity: Principles and Issues (MindTap Course List)
Show all chapter solutions
add

Additional Science Textbook Solutions

Find more solutions based on key concepts
Show solutions add
Which of the following is fare) rich source(s) of vitamin E7 raw vegetable oil colorful foods, such as carrots ...

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

What does thedensityof a substance represent?

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation

A linearly polarized microwave of wavelength 1.50 cm is directed along the positive x axis. The electric field ...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)

Sodium hydroxide is added to phosphoric acid.

Introductory Chemistry: An Active Learning Approach

How do turbidity currents distribute sediments? What do these sediments (turbidites) look like?

Oceanography: An Invitation To Marine Science, Loose-leaf Versin