9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097




9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781133611097
Textbook Problem

Liquid water at 25°C is introduced into an evacuated, insulated vessel. Identify the signs of the following thermodynamic functions for the process that occurs: ∆H, ∆S, ∆Twater, ∆Ssurr,, ∆Suniv.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: It is given that, liquid water is placed into an evacuated, insulated vessel at 25°C . The signs of ΔH,ΔS,ΔTwater,ΔSsurr and ΔSuniv is to be predicted for this process.

Concept introduction: A system that neither exchange mass nor energy from the surrounding is known as an isolated (evacuated) system.

In a perfectly insulated system, no heat is lost. The value of ΔSsurr for such system will be zero.



Since, liquid water is introduced in a perfectly insulated vessel, therefore, ΔSsurr of a system will be zero.

In the insulated system, no heat is lost. Therefore, the change in heat (dQ) is zero. If,




The change in entropy of a system is expressed by the formula,



  • ΔS is the change in entropy.
  • dQ is the change in heat capacity.
  • dt is the change in temperature.

Since, dQ is zero, therefore, ΔS is zero.

Temperature will remain constant in an isolated (evacuated) system. Therefore, the change in temperature of water (ΔTwater) will be zero.

The relation between change in entropy of surroundings and change in enthalpy is,


Substitute the value of ΔH in the above equation

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