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Gather any two of the following items, measure their dimensions, and calculate the number of atoms present in the item. a. a copper penny (pre-1983), density of copper = 8 .96 g/cm 3 b. a nickel (assume that the nickel is pure nickel, Ni), density of nickel = 8 .90 g/cm 3 c. a graphite pencil lead (pure carbon), density of carbon = 2 .62 g/cm 3 d. a helium balloon (assume that the balloon is approximately spherical; the volume of a sphere is V = ( 4 3 ) π r 3 , where r is the radius), density of helium gas = 0.0899 g/L

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Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692
Chapter 3, Problem 67E
Textbook Problem
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Gather any two of the following items, measure their dimensions, and calculate the number of atoms present in the item.

a. a copper penny (pre-1983), density of copper = 8 .96 g/cm 3

b. a nickel (assume that the nickel is pure nickel, Ni), density of nickel = 8 .90 g/cm 3

c. a graphite pencil lead (pure carbon), density of carbon = 2 .62 g/cm 3

d. a helium balloon (assume that the balloon is approximately spherical; the volume of a sphere is V = ( 4 3 ) π r 3 , where r is the radius), density of helium gas = 0.0899 g/L

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The number of atoms present in a copper penny and a nickel coin is to be calculated.

Concept Introduction:

 A mole is a unit of amount of substance. It relates the number of particles to the molar mass.

 One mole of a substance contains 6.022×1023 particles (Avogadro number) The number remains constant regardless of the nature of the substance. One mole of an atom contains 6.022×1023 atoms. One mole of molecules contains 6.022×1023 molecules.

 It is also related to the molar mass of a substance in grams. One mole of a substance weighs that amount in grams which is equal to its molar mass.

 To sum up, 1 mole of a substance contains 6.022×1023 particles and weighs the molar mass in grams.

Explanation of Solution

a) A copper penny (pre- 1983), density of copper = 8.96 g/cm3.

Mass of copper penny in 1983 is 3.1 g. The molar mass of copper is 63.55 g.

The number of atoms present in copper is calculated as follows:

6.022 ×1023 atoms of Cu = 1 mole of Cu = 63.55 g63.55 g of Cu contains = 6.022 ×1023 atoms of Cu3.1 g of  Cu contains =    6.022×1023 atoms63.55 g×3.1g                                   =  2.93 × 1022 atoms

Therefore, the number of atoms present in a copper penny is 2.93 × 1022 .

b) A nickel is pure nickel, density of nickel = = 8

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Chemistry In Focus
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