10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404




10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404
Textbook Problem

What quantity of energy does it take to convert 0.500 kg ice at –20.°C to steam at 250.°C? Specific heat capacities: ice, 2.03 J/g • °C; liquid, 4.2 J/g . °C; steam, 2.0 J/g • °C; Hvap = 40.7 kJ/mol; Hfus = 6.02 kJ/mol.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The required amount of heat for water at -20°C to 250°C should be calculated.

Concept Introduction:

The heat capacity C is defined as the ratio of heat absorbed to the temperature change. It can be given by,

                                           C = Heat absorbedTemperature change

Require heat for an one gram of substance raise to its temperature by one degree Celsius is called specific heat capacity.

Specific heat capacity =  Absorbed heat (J)/ Temperature change(c)×mass ofsubstance (g)......(1)

For the above equation heat is:

                                                     q = S×M×ΔT......(2)

                                                       q is heat J

                                                       M is mass of sample (g)

                                                       S is specific heat capacity (J/°C·g)

                                                        ΔT  is temperature change (°C)



Record the given data:

                 Specific heat capacity of ice =   2.03 J/C.g

                 Specific heat capacity of steam = 2.0 J/C.g

                 Specific heat capacity of water 4.184 J/C.g

                 The  ΔΗvap =40.7 kJ/mol

                 The ΔΗfus = 6.02 kJ/mol

  • The given specific heat capacities, ΔΗvap and ΔΗfus are recorded as shown above.

To calculate the required heat of ice -20°C to 0°C .

The reaction is,



  • The specific heat capacity of ice, temperature change and mass of ice are plugging in to equation 2 to give heat of ice -20°C to 0°C .
  • The heat of ice -20°C to 0°C is 20kJ .

To calculate the required heat of ice 0°C to water at 0°C .

The reaction is,


Molecular weight of water is 18.02g


  • The enthalpy of fusion and molecular weight of water are plugging in to equation  to give heat of ice 0°C to water at 0°C .
  • The heat ice 0°C to water at 0°C is 167kJ .

To calculate the required heat of water at 0°C in to 100°C .

The reaction is,



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