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Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404
Textbook Problem

Define critical temperature and critical pressure. In terms of the kinetic molecular theory, why is it impossible for a substance to exist as a liquid above its critical temperature?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

  • “Critical temperature” has to be defined.
  • “Critical pressure” has to be defined.
  • The reason for inability of a substance existing as liquid above its critical temperature has to be explained.

Concept introduction:

            Matter when subjected to temperature and pressure changes undergoes changes in its physical form. For example, Water existing as liquid at room temperature converts to vapor form when temperature is raised and to solid form when temperature is lowered. The temperature and pressure changes bring about changes in the energy of the molecules in a substance. As a result, changes in its physical form take place.

Explanation

Explanation

              The concept of critical temperature is used in liquefaction of gases. Under certain range of temperature and pressure, gases can be liquefied. But upon reaching a certain temperature, gaseous substances become difficult to liquefy. That temperature is called critical temperature.

Define critical pressure.

           Critical pressure is defined as the pressure at which a gaseous substance can be liquefied at its critical temperature.

             The concept of critical pressure is used in liquefaction of gases. Under certain range of temperature and pressure, gases can be liquefied. The pressure required to liquefy a gas at its critical temperature is called critical pressure of that gas. Every gaseous substance has its own critical temperature and critical pressure range.

Explain why a substance cannot be liquid above its critical temperature.

            The kinetic energy of the molecules increases rapidly that the intermolecular forces loses its significance leading to the molecules moving more freely instead of staying together...

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