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Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404
Textbook Problem

In each of the following groups of substances, pick the one that has the given property. Justify your answer.

a. highest boiling point: HBr, Kr, or Cl2

b. highest freezing point: H2O, NaCl, or HF

c. lowest vapor pressure at 25°C: Cl2, Br2, or I2

d. lowest freezing point: N2, CO, or CO2

e. lowest boiling point: CH4, CH3CH3, or CH3CH2CH3

f. highest boiling point: HF, HCl, or HBr

g. images

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

From the given set of compounds, the compounds with highest boiling point, highest freezing point, lowest vapor pressure, lowest freezing point and lowest boiling point have to be identified and the same has to be justified.

Concept Introduction:

Matter is generally classified into three distinct categories - solid state, liquid state, gaseous state. In all of these three states of matter, the constituents (molecules or ions) of the matter do possess forces between them which are not the same in each state. These forces are called intermolecular forces.

The intermolecular forces are relatively strong in the solids than liquids and weaker in the gaseous substances. This variation influences many of the properties of all the three distinct states of the matter.

If the strength of intermolecular force is high in a substance then its melting point, freezing point, boiling point will be high and the vapor pressure will be low.

The strength of intermolecular forces is,

Londondispersionforces<Dipole-dipoleforces<Hydrogenbonding

Explanation

Kr,HBr,Cl2

Identify the compound which has highest boiling point and justify it.

HBr has the highest boiling point. Compare to the other compounds, the   intermolecular force in HBr is high in strength.

HBr is the only polar covalent compound among the given compounds. Being a polar covalent compound HBr has dipole forces. Hence among the given compounds only in HBr the intermolecular force is strong. At normal temperature, the intermolecular forces are not broken. So at high temperature the intermolecular forces are broken allowing the substance to boil

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

From the given set of compounds, the compounds with highest boiling point, highest freezing point, lowest vapor pressure, lowest freezing point and lowest boiling point have to be identified and the same has to be justified.

Concept Introduction:

Matter is generally classified into three distinct categories - solid state, liquid state, gaseous state. In all of these three states of matter, the constituents (molecules or ions) of the matter do possess forces between them which are not the same in each state. These forces are called intermolecular forces.

The intermolecular forces are relatively strong in the solids than liquids and weaker in the gaseous substances. This variation influences many of the properties of all the three distinct states of the matter.

If the strength of intermolecular force is high in a substance then its melting point, freezing point, boiling point will be high and the vapor pressure will be low.

The strength of intermolecular forces is,

Londondispersionforces<Dipole-dipoleforces<Hydrogenbonding

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

From the given set of compounds, the compounds with highest boiling point, highest freezing point, lowest vapor pressure, lowest freezing point and lowest boiling point have to be identified and the same has to be justified.

Concept Introduction:

Matter is generally classified into three distinct categories - solid state, liquid state, gaseous state. In all of these three states of matter, the constituents (molecules or ions) of the matter do possess forces between them which are not the same in each state. These forces are called intermolecular forces.

The intermolecular forces are relatively strong in the solids than liquids and weaker in the gaseous substances. This variation influences many of the properties of all the three distinct states of the matter.

If the strength of intermolecular force is high in a substance then its melting point, freezing point, boiling point will be high and the vapor pressure will be low.

The strength of intermolecular forces is,

Londondispersionforces<Dipole-dipoleforces<Hydrogenbonding

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

From the given set of compounds, the compounds with highest boiling point, highest freezing point, lowest vapor pressure, lowest freezing point and lowest boiling point have to be identified and the same has to be justified.

Concept Introduction:

Matter is generally classified into three distinct categories - solid state, liquid state, gaseous state. In all of these three states of matter, the constituents (molecules or ions) of the matter do possess forces between them which are not the same in each state. These forces are called intermolecular forces.

The intermolecular forces are relatively strong in the solids than liquids and weaker in the gaseous substances. This variation influences many of the properties of all the three distinct states of the matter.

If the strength of intermolecular force is high in a substance then its melting point, freezing point, boiling point will be high and the vapor pressure will be low.

The strength of intermolecular forces is,

Londondispersionforces<Dipole-dipoleforces<Hydrogenbonding

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

From the given set of compounds, the compounds with highest boiling point, highest freezing point, lowest vapor pressure, lowest freezing point and lowest boiling point have to be identified and the same has to be justified.

Concept Introduction:

Matter is generally classified into three distinct categories - solid state, liquid state, gaseous state. In all of these three states of matter, the constituents (molecules or ions) of the matter do possess forces between them which are not the same in each state. These forces are called intermolecular forces.

The intermolecular forces are relatively strong in the solids than liquids and weaker in the gaseous substances. This variation influences many of the properties of all the three distinct states of the matter.

If the strength of intermolecular force is high in a substance then its melting point, freezing point, boiling point will be high and the vapor pressure will be low.

The strength of intermolecular forces is,

Londondispersionforces<Dipole-dipoleforces<Hydrogenbonding

(f)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

From the given set of compounds, the compounds with highest boiling point, highest freezing point, lowest vapor pressure, lowest freezing point and lowest boiling point have to be identified and the same has to be justified.

Concept Introduction:

Matter is generally classified into three distinct categories - solid state, liquid state, gaseous state. In all of these three states of matter, the constituents (molecules or ions) of the matter do possess forces between them which are not the same in each state. These forces are called intermolecular forces.

The intermolecular forces are relatively strong in the solids than liquids and weaker in the gaseous substances. This variation influences many of the properties of all the three distinct states of the matter.

If the strength of intermolecular force is high in a substance then its melting point, freezing point, boiling point will be high and the vapor pressure will be low.

The strength of intermolecular forces is,

Londondispersionforces<Dipole-dipoleforces<Hydrogenbonding

(g)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

From the given set of compounds, the compounds with highest boiling point, highest freezing point, lowest vapor pressure, lowest freezing point and lowest boiling point have to be identified and the same has to be justified.

Concept Introduction:

Matter is generally classified into three distinct categories - solid state, liquid state, gaseous state. In all of these three states of matter, the constituents (molecules or ions) of the matter do possess forces between them which are not the same in each state. These forces are called intermolecular forces.

The intermolecular forces are relatively strong in the solids than liquids and weaker in the gaseous substances. This variation influences many of the properties of all the three distinct states of the matter.

If the strength of intermolecular force is high in a substance then its melting point, freezing point, boiling point will be high and the vapor pressure will be low.

The strength of intermolecular forces is,

Londondispersionforces<Dipole-dipoleforces<Hydrogenbonding

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