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Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry

10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305957404
Textbook Problem

Some of the physical properties of H2O and D2O are as follows:

Property H2O D2O
Density at 20°C (g/ml) 0.997 1.108
Boiling point (°C) 100.00 101.41
Melting point (°C) 0.00 3.79
H°vap(kJ/mol) 40.7 41.61
H°fus (kJ/mol) 6.02 6.3

Account for the differences. (Note: D is a symbol often used for 2H, the deuterium isotope of hydrogen.)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Difference in physical property between H2O and D2O to be explained.

Concept introduction

Every atom strives to attain lowest possible energy in their shells. This is the driving force of atoms to combine with other atoms in so called “chemical reactions”. At the lowest possible energy levels, atoms and molecules attain utmost stability.

Reaching the lowest energy is not only the essential criterion for the molecules of matter to be stable. There are many other factors that have role in determining the stability of a substance. “Intermolecular forces” and “Intramolecular forces” are two such factors that have significant impact on the stability of matter.

In simple words, Intermolecular forces are termed as the forces acting “between molecules” that is components of a substance. Intramolecular forces are the forces that operate “within a molecule”. The prefix “inter” mean “among” and “intra” mean “within”.

Atoms do combine to form a molecule. Within a molecule, the atoms are held together by intramolecular forces. Many molecules are formed by such instance. Matter is composed of many such innumerable molecules which are held together by intermolecular forces.

Explanation

Explanation

Intermolecular forces

  • Intermolecular forces are the forces acting between molecules whereas Intramolecular forces are the forces that operate within a molecule.
  • Hydrogen bonding is a special type of Dipole-dipole forces but stronger than the former.
  • Arrangement of major types of intermolecular forces in increasing order of strength:

Londondispersionforces<Dipole-dipoleforces<

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