Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425



Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem

Explain in your own words what is meant by the term entropy. Explain how both matter spread and energy spread are related to the concept of entropy.

Interpretation Introduction


What is entropy and how it is related to matter spread and energy spread should be determined?

Concept Introduction:

Energy is the ability to do work or produce heat. The law of conservation of energy says that theenergy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converted from one type to another. It is also called the first law of thermodynamics, according to which the energy of the universe is constant.

There are two driving forces in nature namely energy and matter spread. These driving forces are responsible for affecting the reaction to go to completion. Energy spread is the concentrated energy which disperses widely. It is always for an exothermic reaction. Molecules spread means molecules spread to occupy a large volume.


Entropy measures the disorder or randomness in the system. Ice has more ordered structure than liquid water because ice contains closely packed and ordered watermolecules. Both energy and matter spread lead to greater disorder in the universe resulting in greater entropy.

For example, Dissolution of Na2 SO4 in water is an example where matter spread is the driving force. This reaction is spontaneous. It involves energy concentration, but the driving force responsible for the completion of this reaction is matter spread...

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