Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425



Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem

n Section 10.7, two characteristics of enthalpy changes for reactions are listed. What are these characteristics? Explain why these characteristics are true.

Interpretation Introduction


The characteristics of the given enthalpy change reactions and why they are correct should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Energy is the ability to do work or produce heat. The law of conservation of energy says that theenergy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converted from one type to another. It is also called the first law of thermodynamics, according to which the energy of the universe is constant.

Change in enthalpy(?H) is the heat exchanged during the process under the conditions of constant pressure.?H for a chemical reaction can be positive or negative. A chemical reaction which has a positive sign is said to be endothermic, while a reaction having a negative ?H is said to be exothermic.


The two characteristics of?H forthe given reaction are:

  1. It a reaction is reversed, the sign of ?His also reversed.
  2. The value of the ?H is directly proportional to the reactants and products quantities.

Both characteristics are true.

Let’s understand both in detail.

Let us consider the synthesis of ammonia

N2(g)+3H2(g)2NH3(g)ΔH=92.2 kJ

This reaction is exothermic, 92.2 kJ of energy flows into the surroundings as heat. For reverse reaction,


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