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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem
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. Why was tetraethyl lead. (C2H5)4Pb. added to gasoline in the past’? Why is the use of this substance being phased out?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The reason for addition of tetraethyl lead to the gasoline in the past and the reason for this process to be phased out should be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Tetraethyl lead has been used as an antiknocking agent. Knocking is a process that occur in internal combustion engines that results in premature combustion of portions of fuel/air mixture without reaching the flame front where the fuel/air mixture should burn with the ignition that comes from spark plug. This ultimately results in an inefficient energy transfer. Gasoline (fuel) is mixed with antiknocking agents to overcome this problem. When antiknocking agents such as Tetraethyl lead are mixed with gasoline, it allows fuel/air mixture to reach higher temperature and pressure without being combusted reducing the premature combustion.

Explanation

Engine knocking is a result of cool flame, series of low temperature combustion reactions that occurs inside the engine. Radicals that occur as a result of pyrolysis sustain the cool flame. Once the Tetraethyl lead reaches the engine, it breaks into lead and ethyl radical. Ethyl radicals live for a very short time. Resulting lead inhibit the pyrolyzed radicals stopping the radical chain reactions thus reducing the knocking...

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