10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305957404


10th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305957404


Chapter 10, Problem 65E
Textbook Problem

Explain how doping silicon with either phosphorus or gallium increases the electrical conductivity over that of pure silicon.

Expert Solution
Interpretation Introduction


                 Explanation has to be given for why Phosphorus or gallium doped silicon exhibits higher electrical conductivity than the pure silicon.

Concept introduction:

                In semiconductors the energy gap between the valence and conduction band is of medium level between that of conductors and insulators. The energy gap is high as that of conductors and low as that of insulators.

               Semi-conductors are of two distinct types: p-type and n-type, formed by imparting impurities which is nothing but elements other than the one which act as semi-conductor. This phenomenon of imparting impurities is called as “doping”.

Explanation of Solution


Understand the concept of valence and conduction band.

                Electrons in the conduction band are responsible for conduction.

  The electrons usually exist in the valence band and there must be movement of electrons from valence to conduction band for conductivity to occur.

                In the structure of solids, the energy levels are not discreet instead they are overlapped and condensed to form fine energy levels called “bands”. In metals, which are conductors, the energy gap between the valence and conduction band is almost nil or of very minimal gap. In insulators which are non-metals, the case is quite opposite that there exists high energy gap between valence and conduction bands. In semi-conductors, that are semi-metals or metalloids, the energy gap between the two bands is moderate.

Understand the concept of “doping” of semi-conductor and its effects.

              Doping is a process of adding additional substance, like any metals, alloys, non-metals or oxides to pure semi-conductor in order to improvise the electrical conductivity of the semi-conductors. As a result there is decrease in the energy gap between the valence and conduction band in semi-conductors.

            Valency of silicon is 4 whereas that of phosphorus if 5. Pure silicon exhibits poor conductivity...

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