   # The major industrial use of hydrogen is in the production of ammonia by the Haber process: 3 H 2 ( g ) + N 2 ( g ) → 2 NH 3 ( g ) a. Using data from Appendix 4, calculate ∆H °, ∆S °, and ∆G ° for the Haber process reaction. b. Is the reaction spontaneous at standard conditions? c. At what temperatures is the reaction spontaneous at standard conditions? Assume ∆H ° and ∆S ° do not depend on temperature. ### Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

#### Solutions

Chapter
Section ### Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 16, Problem 54E
Textbook Problem
16 views

## The major industrial use of hydrogen is in the production of ammonia by the Haber process: 3 H 2 ( g ) + N 2 ( g ) → 2 NH 3 ( g ) a. Using data from Appendix 4, calculate ∆H°, ∆S°, and ∆G° for the Haber process reaction.b. Is the reaction spontaneous at standard conditions?c. At what temperatures is the reaction spontaneous at standard conditions? Assume ∆H° and ∆S° do not depend on temperature.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The values of ΔS,ΔH and ΔG is to be calculated at 25°C for the given reaction. If the reaction is spontaneous is to be stated. The temperature at which the reaction is spontaneous is to be calculated.

Concept introduction:

The expression for ΔS is,

ΔS=npΔS(product)nfΔS(reactant)

The expression for ΔH is,

ΔH=npΔH(product)nfΔH(reactant)

The expression for ΔG is,

ΔG=npΔG(product)nfΔG(reactant)

### Explanation of Solution

The stated reaction is,

3H2(g)+N2(g)2NH3(g)

Refer to Appendix 4 .

The value of ΔS(J/Kmol) for the given reactant and product is,

 Molecules ΔS∘(J/K⋅mol) NH3(g) 193 N2(g) 192 H2(g) 131

The formula of ΔS is,

ΔS=npΔS(product)nfΔS(reactant)

Where,

• ΔS is the standard entropy of reaction.
• np is the number of moles of each product.
• nr is the number of moles each reactant.
• ΔS(product) is the standard entropy of product at a pressure of 1atm .
• ΔS(reactant) is the standard entropy of reactant at a pressure of 1atm .

Substitute all values from the table in the above equation.

ΔS=npΔS(product)nfΔS(reactant)=[2(193){3(131)+(192)}]J/K=199J/K_

The value of ΔH(kJ/mol) for the given reactant and product is,

 Molecules ΔH∘(kJ/mol) NH3(g) −46 N2(g) 0 H2(g) 0

The formula of ΔH is,

ΔH=npΔH(product)nfΔH(reactant)

Where,

• ΔH is the standard enthalpy of reaction

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The values of ΔS,ΔH and ΔG is to be calculated at 25°C for the given reaction. If the reaction is spontaneous is to be stated. The temperature at which the reaction is spontaneous is to be calculated.

Concept introduction:

The expression for ΔS is,

ΔS=npΔS(product)nfΔS(reactant)

The expression for ΔH is,

ΔH=npΔH(product)nfΔH(reactant)

The expression for ΔG is,

ΔG=npΔG(product)nfΔG(reactant)

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The values of ΔS,ΔH and ΔG is to be calculated at 25°C for the given reaction. If the reaction is spontaneous is to be stated. The temperature at which the reaction is spontaneous is to be calculated.

Concept introduction:

The expression for ΔS is,

ΔS=npΔS(product)nfΔS(reactant)

The expression for ΔH is,

ΔH=npΔH(product)nfΔH(reactant)

The expression for ΔG is,

ΔG=npΔG(product)nfΔG(reactant)

### Still sussing out bartleby?

Check out a sample textbook solution.

See a sample solution

#### The Solution to Your Study Problems

Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, many with advanced degrees!

Get Started

Find more solutions based on key concepts
Which of the following statements about basal metabolic rate (BMR) is correct? The greater a person's ago, the ...

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

Express 0.0562 in exponential notation. a. 0.0562103 b. 56103 c. 562104 d. 5.62102

Chemistry for Today: General, Organic, and Biochemistry

How can errors in the cell cycle lead to cancer in humans?

Human Heredity: Principles and Issues (MindTap Course List)

Was Earths atmosphere rich in oxygen when life originated here?

Oceanography: An Invitation To Marine Science, Loose-leaf Versin

In the arrangement shown in Figure P18.27, an object can be hung from a string (with linear mass density = 0.0...

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included) 